ZŁOŻE WĘGLA BRUNATNEGO BEŁCHATÓW A PROBLEM EKSPLOATACJI SUROWCÓW SKALNYCH I CERAMICZNYCH

Tadeusz Ratajczak, Elżbieta Hycnar, Waldemar Jończyk

Abstract


THE BEŁCHATÓW LIGNITE DEPOSIT AND THE QUARRYING PROBLEM OF MINERAL RESOURCES

Abstract. Open pit mining of lignite in the Bełchatów deposit requires annual removing of 120-150 mln m3 of overburden. Within such a huge volume of sediments there are numerous rock varieties meeting criteria of associated mineral raw materials, thus the mine cannot overlook the problem of their utilization. In the Bełchatów lignite deposit, the list of associated mineral raw materials includes Holocene peats, Pleistocene sands, gravels and erratic boulders as well, Tertiary clays (Poznań, beidellite, illite and kaolinite varieties, according to the division used by the mine). Other Tertiary rocks, such as quartz sandstones, chert pavement layers, lacustrine chalk, as well as the rocks of Mesozoic basement (Upper Jurassic limestones and Cretaceous marls, geizes and diatomites) may also become important commodities. The range of practical applications of these rocks is very wide. For instance, the beidellite clays may be utilized in ceramic, drilling and casting technologies, as sorbents and also as impervious, sealing materials in constructing landfills. The limestones and sandstones represent materials which road aggregates can be produced from. Lacustrine chalk has been used as a natural mineral fertilizer but investigations of its properties are in progress and there are attempts to utilize this rock first of all as a sorbent and in cement industry, and also in production of technical and paint chalk and burnt lime. The mine have had to develop specific procedures to overcome problems with current utilization and marketing of some associated mineral raw materials as well as with their protecting during mass mining of lignite - the major commodity. Such solutions include storing the associated rocks, those minor but important raw materials, in separate for each variety secondary deposits, known as anthropogenic deposits.


Keywords


węgiel brunatny, kopaliny towarzyszące, właściwości surowcowe, złoża antropogeniczne.

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