STUDIUM HYDROGEOLOGII ZACHODNIEJ CZĘŚCI KARPAT POLSKICH

Józef Chowaniec

Abstract


HYDROGEOLOGY STUDY OF THE WESTERN PART OF THE POLISH CARPATHIANS

Abstract. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Polish Carpathians is complicated due to large differences in morphology, climate and geology. Morphology and climate are related to altitudes from ca. 300 m a.s.l. at the northern boundary to ca. 2500 m a.s.l. at the south. Additional differentiation of morphology and geology results from the presence of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, which separates the Outer Carpathians from Inner Carpathians. Usable fresh waters occur mainly in Quaternary sediments along river valleys and in the Orawa Basin, in flysch formations of the Inner and Outer Carpathians, and in carbonate Mesozoic and Eocene formations of the Tatra Mts. (Inner Carpathians). There are no confining layers of low permeability which would naturally protect fresh waters against anthropogenic pollution. In spite of that, fresh waters are generally of good chemical quality, though they have too low fluoride contents, and too high iron and manganese concentrations. The best water reservoirs are related to Quaternary sediments, but flysch formations supply more water due to much larger area occupied. Outcrops of water bearing formations in the Tatra Mts. represent recharge area for the thermal water of the Podhale Basin. Mineral waters are greatly differentiated chemically and genetically. In the oldest basement of the flysch overthrust they are similar to the deepest brines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW), which are related to meteoric waters of a very hot climate in a distant past. Much younger connate marine brines occur in Badenian sediments covered by flysch in some areas. Brines and saline waters of diagenetic origin dominate in deep flysch layers. Their chemical components are the remnants of the ultrafiltrated marine water whereas the original water molecules were removed by molecules released from clay minerals during burial diagenesis. In some regions, these diagenetic saline waters ascend through fault zones to the surface and mix with local infiltration of meteoric origin. Chloride carbonated waters are formed when such process is accompanied by CO2 flux of metamorphic origin. Common carbonated waters are formed in the regions of a deep penetration of meteoric waters abundant presens of CO2, and the lack of diagenetic waters.


Keywords


wody podziemne, wody zwykłe, wody mineralne, szczawy, solanki, wody diagenetyczne, wody sedymentacyjne, wody termalne, izotopy środowiskowe, jakość i zagrożenia wód, Karpaty Zachodnie.

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