DZIEWIĘĆDZIESIĄTA ROCZNICA UTWORZENIA PAŃSTWOWEGO INSTYTUTU GEOLOGICZNEGO NA TLE ZARYSU NAUK O ZIEMI W POLSCE

Halina Urban, Marek Graniczny

Abstract


90th ANNIVERSARY OF THE POLISH GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE AT THE BACKGROUND OF DEVELOPMENTS IN EARTH SCIENCES IN POLAND

It could be stated that the history of the mining and earth sciences in Poland is much anterior than the dynasty of the Polish Piast's kings. The different mineral resources were already recognized and exploited in the mediaeval times at the territory of Poland. Very important event was establishing of the Ore's Commission by the king Stanislav August Poniatowski in the 1782. Partition of Poland stopped considerably development of the geological sciences in Poland. However, some important investigations and organization measures were undertaken. The name of the Stanislav Staszic should be mentioned who is considered as “father of the Polish geology”. Several outstanding followers should be mentioned too, e.g.: Georg Gottlieb Pusch, or Ludwig Zejszner. Many Polish geologists emigrated and contributed much to the important geological discoveries in other continents as: Paweł Edmund Strzelecki (America, Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand), Ignacy Domeyko (Southern America), Aleksander Piotr Czekanowski and Jan Czerski (Asia), and many others. In the end of the XIX century several initiative started devoted establishing in Poland national geological survey. The idea of Józef Morozewicz prevailed to establish the Polish Geological Institute within the structure of the Ministry of Industry and Trade. These ideas could be realized when Poland get independence in November 1918. Several members of the Parliament, undertaken the initiative to constitute the Polish Geological Institute, which was accepted in April 1919. Official opening of the Institute took place on 7th May 1919 in the Staszic Palace, which was the first seat of this organization. Two years later the PGI status and budget was accepted by the Polish government and Józef Morozewicz has got director's nomination from the Head of State Józef Piłsudski. In these difficult times big organizational efforts were made to enable performing of the basic survey tasks and investigations. First staff of the Institute has included above 30 persons (17 geologists). In the first years of activities PGI geologists undertaken studies in the different parts of Poland, among them: the Carpathians, High Tatra's, Carpathian Foredeep, Upper Silesia, the Holy Cross Mountains as well as Polish Lowlands. The results of these studies were printed in the yearly reports. Several importantdiscoveries were reported, for example: first suggestions concerning existence of the coal deposits in the Lublin Basin, iron deposits in Rudki, phosphorite resources in Rachów or salt deposits in Kłodawa. Simultaneously the geological mapping survey was performed. Two important maps at a scale of 1:750 000 was published: Geological Map of Poland and Geological Map of the Natural
Resources of Poland. Several maps in the bigger scale was printed, too. In the meantime, the Institute has obtained a new parcel at the corner of the Rakowiecka and Wiśniowa streets where two buildings were erected, in 1926 and 1936. In March 1938, President of Poland accepted new decree concerning geological survey of Poland which was performed by the Polish Geological Institute and Geological Council. The role of the PGI has grown and the budget increased substantially. Unfortunately this positive trend was stopped due to the beginning of the Second World War. The part of the PGI together with Director Karol Bohdanowicz started evacuation on 6th September 1939. The first heroic period of the Institute came to the end.


Full Text:

PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.