DAWNE KOPALNIE I METODY EKSPLOATACJI ZŁÓŻ BURSZTYNU BAŁTYCKIEGO

Anna Małka

Abstract


OLD MINES AND EXPLOITATION METHODS OF BALTIC AMBER DEPOSITS

Abstract. The paper presents the historical overview of the mining of Baltic amber deposits in Pomerania (Poland) and Sambia (Russia). The first attempt to extract amber commissioned by the Duke of Prussia Frederick William took place on the coast of Sambia, in the middle of the 17th century. The first successful attempt to build an underground mine was in the 18th century. In 1781 permission for the construction
of mine in the village of Sinjavino (Sambia) was granted. The amber came from pocket deposits of the brown-coal formation. The mine had been operated for 24 years. Amber mining developed rapidly in the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Geological resarch carried out between 1850 and 1869 by Zaddach initiated a process of qualitative and quantitative changes in amber technology and production. Mines were set up based on geological identification provided by geologists. The operation was taken over by larger companies in 1870. Having the greatest profits, the Stantien & Becker company possessed a monopoly on amber. The methodical mining of Holocene amber deposits began with dredging the Curonian Lagoon in 1860. In 1874 the Stantien&Becker company, constantly expanding the scope of operation began the open-cast mining of amber deposits lying in Upper Eocene formations in Palmnicken. In 1883 north of Palmnicken Stantien & Becker built the Anna Mine. Since 1899, after the government had bought the mining infrastructure of the company, the mine has been under state management. In 1922 it was closed. When
the mine closed, mining was carried out only using the open-cast method. In 1912 work began on strip mine in Kraxtepellen which replaced the Anna Mine in 1923. The deposits located in Poland were not suitable for systematic mining that took place in Sambia Peninsula, because usually there were small pocket deposits.


Keywords


złoża bursztynu, eksploatacja bursztynu, historia górnictwa bursztynu, Pomorze, Sambia.

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