The Grajcarek Succession (Lower Jurassic–mid Paleocene) in the Pieniny Klippen Belt, West Carpathians, Poland: a stratigraphic synthesis

Krzysztof Birkenmajer, Przemysław Gedl


A concise stratigraphic synthesis of the Grajcarek Succession of the Pieniny Klippen Belt (West Carpathians,Poland) is presented. This succession consists of 12 lithostratigraphic units with the rank of formation, and two with the rank of member, spanning the geological time from middle Toarcian (late Early Jurassic) to Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) and mid Paleocene. The stratigraphical column starts with deep-water flysch (the Szlachtowa Fm; Toarcian–Aalenian through Bajocian–?lower Bathonian), followed by dysoxic shales, marls and limestones (the Opaleniec Fm; Bajocian–Bathonian). The previously distinguished Krzonowe and Stembrow formations, are downgraded to members. Late Bathonian–Oxfordian times were characterized by the widely occurring deposition of abyssal radiolarites and shales, which is represented by the Sokolica Radiolarite Fm and the Czajakowa Radiolarite Fm, common to both the Grajcarek and Klippen successions. Red nodular limestones and aptychus marls (the Czorsztyn Limestone Fm; Kimmeridgian–lower Tithonian) overlie the radiolarites. Above, pelagic cherty limestones occur (the Pieniny Limestone Fm; Tithonian–Aptian). These are followed by Lower Cretaceous predominantly dark shales and marls (the Kapuśnica Fm; Aptian–Albian, the Wronine Fm; Albian, and the Hulina Fm; Albian–Cenomanian), succeeded by abyssal, red shales (the Malinowa Shale Fm; upper Cenomanian–Campanian), and these in turn by grey, marly, flyschoid strata (the Hałuszowa Fm; ?Campanian). The Grajcarek Succession terminates with the Jarmuta Fm (Maastrichtian–mid Paleocene). It consists of sedimentary breccias, often with large olistoliths of Jurassic–Cretaceous rocks, and conglomerates and sandstones in a southern zone, giving way to proximal flysch and distal flysch facies further north. This was the time of orogenic Laramian folding events, associated with subaerial and submarine erosion. A sedimentary hiatus separates the Jarmuta Fm flysch (Maastrichtian) from the Szczawnica Fm (Upper Paleocene–Eocene) in both the Klippen and Grajcarek successions. This hiatus seems to diminish and finally close in a northward direction, in the Magura Nappe succession.

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