Origin and age of Pleistocene 'mixed gravels' in the northern foreland of the Carpathians

Leszek Lindner, Leszek Marks


Accumulations of pebbles in the northern foreland of the Carpathians in Ukraine and Poland, composed mostly of Carpathian sandstones, but with a small admixture of Scandinavian rocks, have been known for many years as the ‘mixed gravels’. The occurrence of these gravels in the San–Dnistr and Vistula–Odra interfluves proves that they are of fluvial origin and were deposited by rivers that flowed northwards during the Podlasian (Martonosha and Shirokino) and Ferdynandovian (Lubny) Interglacials. The Scandinavian material was derived from eroded glacial deposits of Nidanian (Turskian) and Sanian 1 (Vyzhivskian, equivalent to Donian) Glaciations.

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