Stratygrafia fliszu w odwiercie Łodygowice IG-1 w Karpatach

Stanisław Geroch, Wiesław Nowak


Stratigraphy of the Flysch in the borehole Łodygowice IG-1 (Westerhn Carpathians, Poland)

The borehole Łodygowice IG-1, situated north-west of Żywiec, Southern Poland, has provided new data concerning the tectonics and stratigraphy of the Carpathian flysch and of the Carpathian basement (Figs. 1—7). The stratigraphie profile of the Łodygowice borehole is as follows: Quaternary (depth 0,0—7,0 metres, Carpathian Flysch (7,0—1715,5 m), autochthonous Miocene-?Burdigalian (1715,5—1721,0 m.), Palaeozoic (1721,0—1732,0 m.), Pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks (not pierced at a depth of 2537,0 m.). Flysch sediments belong to 4 tectonic units: Silesian-Godula nappe (SG), Silesian-Cieszyn nappe (SC), „ExternaF’-Silesian nappe (SZ), Sub- -Silesian nappe (PS).

It consists mainly of late Palaeogene sediments. The following lithostratigraphic units have been differentiated: Krosno Beds (7,0—1265,0 m), Gródek Sandstones (1265,0—1360,0 m.), tectonic gap, Globigerina Marls (1360,0—1364,0 m.), Hieroglyphic Beds 1364,0—1436,0 m.), tectonic gap, ? Godula Beds (1436,0—1454,0 m.). K r o s n o Beds (Late Oligocene-?early Miocene). Seven complexes of strata in the stratigraphie sequence have been distinguished from top to bottom: 1st complex of sandstones and Shales (depth 7,0— 15.0 m.), Ilnd complex of shales and sandstones (15,0—397,0 m.), 3rd complex of convoluted sandstones (397,0—747,0 m.), IVth complex of shales and mudstones (747,0—921,0 m.), Vth complex of sandstones and shales (921,0—1056,0 m.), VIth complex of shales and mudstones (1956,0— 1208.0 m.), VIIth complex of thick-bedded sandstones (1208,0—1265,0 m.). In the shales of the VIth complex (depth 1131,0—1137,7 m.) planktonic foraminifers including Globorotalia opima nana Bolli and G. permicra Blow et Banner have been found (see Polish text p. 346—347). Reworked nannoplankton has been found here only.
Gródek Sandstones (late Oligocene). This lithostratigraphic unit oomsiists of alternating of glauconitic sandstones, micaceous sandstones, silty grey shales and brown shales. The silty shales which are the lowest in the sequence, brown and grey in colour (depth 1356,0— 1360,6 m.) contain an assemblage with calcareous planktonie and benthonic foraminifers including Virgulinella chalkophila (Hagn) and Nonionella liebusi Hagn (see Polish text p. 349). The Krosno Beds and the Gródek Sandstones (in the depth interval 632,4—1360,6 m.) contain ichthyofaunal remains such as teeth, scales, and skeletal fragments. Dr A. Jerzmańska and dr W. Szymczyk (pers. communie.) found there Africentrum moldavicum (Pauca) (order Perciformes) and Clupea sardinites Heck, and Alosa sp. (order Clupeiformes). Pyritized diatoms occur in the above mentioned -beds locally. The tectonically reduced Gródek Sandstones (diagonal fault plane) contact the Upper Eocene Globigerima Marls.
Globigerina Marls (Upper Eocene, mainly upper part). These are alternating layers of green marls, green shales and brown micaceous shales with thin intercalations of fine grained glauconitic sandstone. Their small thickness (ca. 4,0 m.) and particularly the occurrence of a rich assemblage of planktonie foraminifers (Globigerina yeguaensis Weinzierl et Applin, G. corpulenta Subbotina, G. pseudoampliapertura Blow et Banner) indicate that the tectoinically reduced Globigerina Marls in the Łodygowice borehole correspond to the lower part of the Sub-Menilite Globigerina Marls.
Hieroglyphic Beds (Middle Eocene-Upper Eocene). These are noncalcareous green and brown shales with intercalations of glauconitic fine grained sandstones. These sediments correspond only to the upper part of Hieroglyphic Beds of the Silesian nappe. This is confirmed by the presence of foraminiferal assemblages including Ammodiscus latus, Grzybowski, Cyclammina amplectens Grzyb., Acarinina rugosoaculeata Subbotima. ?Godula Beds (?Upper Cretaceous). It is difficult to determine the stratigraphie position of sandstones at a depth of 1436,0—1454,0 m. assessed on the basis of applied geophysics and fragmentary material. These are coarse grained sandstones, probably thick bedded and they can be correlated either with the intercalations of sandstones within the suborneruilite Eocene or with a detached block of the Godula, sandstones. The latter seems more plausible. THE

SILESIAN-CIESZYN NAPPE (SC), DEPTH 1454,0—1473,5 M. (FIGS. 4, 7)
In a detached block of the Cieszyn nappe (19,5 m.) consisting of 4 tectonic scales, the following lithostratigraphic units have been disstinguished: Lower Cieszyn Shales (1454,0—1456,0 m.), tectonic gap, variegated marls (1456,0—1456,03 m.), tectonic gap, Upper Cieszyn Shales (1456,3—1468,5 m.), tectonic gap, Cieszyn Limestones 1468,5—1470,0 m.), tectonic gap, Upper Cieszyn Shales with igneous rocks (Teschenites) (1470,0—1473,5 m.).
Lower Cieszyn Shales (Lower Tithonian). It is a small detached block (2 metres) of dark grey siltstones, thick bedded with scattered laminae of calcibutites and small gravels of Coralline limestones and Teschenites (PI. I, Fig. 1). Rare calcareous foraminifers, including Trocholina solecensis Bielecka et Pożaryski, are in these siltstones.
Cieszyn Limestones (7-lower part of Upper Tithonian). This is a small detached block (1,5 m.) With beige yellow cakirudites (Pl. I, Fig. 4), intercalated with green marly shales.
Upper Cieszyn Shales (?Valanginian-Hauterivian). There are two detached blocks. The upper one (12,5 m.) is formed of black shales with thin intercalations of calcilutites, quartz arenites and fine grained sandstones (Pl. I, Fig. 3). Rare arenaceous and calcareous foraminifers including Dorothia hauteriviana (Moullade), and Pseudoreophax cisovnicensis Geroch, Trochammina vocontiana Moullade, Lenticulina muensteri (Roemer) are present there. The lower block (3,5 m.) contains marly shales with one thin Tescheruite sill.
Teschenites (acc. to T. Wiesser’s determination). Teschenites (s.l.) occur in the Łodygowice borehole as rounded pebbles in the Lower Cieszyn Shales, as a sill in the Upper Cieszyn Shales, and as rounded pebbles in the autochthonous molasse (?Burdigalian age). These and other data suggest the existence of at least two Teschenite magmatic phases, the older (Upper Jurassic, late? Deister phase), and the younger (Neocomian, ?Austroalpine phase).
Variegated marls (?Upper Cretaceous-?Eocene). The origin of a thin (ca. 3 cm.) streak of green and red marly shales at the contact of the Lower Cieszyn Shades and Upper Cieszyn Shales (depth 1456,0— 1456,03 m.) has not been explained. These are rubbed tectonic fragments belonging probably to the „external” — Silesian nappe.

The thickness of beds belonging to this unit is small (34,0 m.), nevertheless they represent sediments of Hauterivian to Eocene age in a partly interrupted stratigraphie sequence. The following lithostratigraphic members have been distinguished: variegated marls (1473,5 m. — fragments), grey shales (1473,5—1477,3 m.), variegated shales (1477,3— 1492,15 m.), Shaly Lgota Beds (1492,15—1499,0 m.), Verovice Beds (1499,0—1502,0 m.), Shaly Grodziszcze Beds (1502,0—1507,5 m.).
Variegated marls (Palaeocene/Lower Eocene). There are sparse fragments of these sediments at depth 1473,5 m. only. These marls contain planktonic foraminifers (Globorotalia aequa Cushman et Renz, G. marginodentata Subbotina, G. subbotinae Morosova, G. primitiva Finlay). This microfauna represents the zone P.6 (= G. subbotinae). These sediments constitute either the intercalations in the underlying grey shales or form their cover.
Greyshales (?Maestrichtian-Paleocene). This unit combines lithological features of the Istebna Shales (dark grey, in places green shales) and of the Frydek Marls (bluish grey micaceous, glauconitic sandstones with calcareous cement). These sediments contain arenaceous foramimfers (Dendrophrya robusta Grzybowski, Ammodiscus siliceus (Terquem), Haplophragmoides walteri (Grzybowski), Textularia plummerae Lalidker, Sphaerammina gerochi Hanzlikova).
Variegated shales (Turanian-Senonian). In the upper part of this lithostrati graphic unit there occur mainly calcareous shales, while in the lower part — mainly non-calcareous. In the lowermost part green shales are observed. These sediments contain arenaceous and rarely calcareous foraminifers (see Polish text p. 358) at a depth of 1477,0—1482,0 m. including Hormosina ovulum gigantea Geroch, Rzehakina epigona (Rzehak), Reussella szajnochae (Grzybowski) — very rare; at a depth of 1487,0—1491,0 m. — Uvigerinammina jankoi Majzon, Tritaxia cf. subparisiensis (Grzyb.); at a depth of 1491,0—1492,0 m. — U. jankoi, Recurvoides cf. godulensis Hanzlikovä; at a depth of 1492,0—1492,15 m. — Ammobaculites problematicus Neagu, U. jankoi, Hedbergella cf. planispira Tappan.
Shaly Lgota Beds (Albian-?early Cenomanian). These unit consists of dark green spotted shales with rare intercalations of glauconitic sandstones containing calcareous cement. In the lower part of these beds dark and black shales prevail. One intercalation of a fine grained sandstone is present there (0,25 m.). The shales contain arenaceous and calcareous foraminifers (see Polish text p. 360) including Haplophragmoides gigas minor Nauss, Recurvoides imperfectus Hanzlikova, Plectorecurvoides alternans Noth, Lingulogavelinella jormosa (Brotzen), Hedbergella planispira Tappan.
Verovice Beds (?late Barr emian- ? early Albian). The unit consists of thin bedded black Shales. They contain arenaceous foraminifers (see Polish text 360—361) including Verneuilinoides neocomiensis (Mjatliuk), V. subfiliformis Bartenstein, Reophax minuta Tappan, Gaudryina oblonga Zaspelova, Hippocrepina depressa Valiöek, Pseudobolivina variabilis (Vasiöek), and diatoms: ?Ditylum sp., Coscinodiscus sp., Aulacodiscus sieminskae Geroch, ?Endictya sp., and Melosira sp. (Geroch 1979).
Shaly Grodziszcze Beds (Hauterivian-?early Barremian). These are grey marly and silty shales and fine grained sandstones with calcite veins. These sediments contain arenaceous and calcareous foraminifers: Dorothia hauteriviana (Moullade), Verneuilinoides neocomiensis (Mjatliuk), Lagena hauteriviana Bartenstein et Brand, and others (see Polish text p. 361—362).

THE SUB-SILESIAN NAPPE (PS), DEPTH 1507,5—1715,5 M. (FIG. 6, 7)
This tectonically reduced incomplete sequence includes sediments 208 m. thick. They are mainly Cretaceous deposits and partly of Palaeocene age. The sediments can be divided into the following lithostratigraphic units: grey shales (1507,5—1541,0 m.), green shales with intercalations of marls (1541,0—1585,0 m.), tectonic gap, shaly Grodziszcze Beds 1585,0—1689,0 m.), Lower Gaize Beds (1689,0—1715,5 m.).
Grey shales (?Maestrichtian-Palaeocene). This unit combines the lithological features of the Istebna Beds and of the Frydek Marls. They contain arenaceous foraminifers including Dendrophrya robusta Grzyb. D. excelsa Grzyb., Saccammina placenta (Grzyb.), Trochamminoides irregularis White, Nodellum velascoense Cushman, Sphaerammina gerochi Hanzlikova.
Green shales with intercalations of light green marls (Santonian- early Campanian). These beds contain calcareous and arenaceous foraminifers (see Polish text p. 366—367) including Stensioina exsculpta (Reuss). In the middle part (depth 1561,0—1563,0 m.) Globotruncana lapparenti Bolli and G. concavata Brotzen occur.
Shaly Grodziszcze Beds (Hauterivian-?early Barremian). These are black and dark grey shales, in places marly, with fine grained sandstones (Pl. III, Fig. 2) with calcite veins. The sandstones contain Foramnifera, Radiolaria, Bryozoa, Lithothamnium and Cadosinids (PI. III). The shales contain calcareous and arenaceous foraminifers, and radiolarians (Polish text p. 367—-368). At a depth of 1617,2—1620,4 m. there have been found Marginulinopsis jaffaensis (Sigal), M. bettenstaedti Bart, et Brand, Epistomina ornata (Roemer), Trocholina burlini Gorbatchik; at a depth of 1657,6—1661,0 m. — Dorothia hauteriviana (Mullade), Pseudoreophax cisovnicensis Geroch, Lagena hauteriviana Bart, et Brand.
Lower Gaize Beds (?Hauterivian — ?early Barremian). The following complexes have been distinguished: At a depth of 1689,0— 1691,0 m.: black silty and marly shales with thin intercalations of gaizes and spongiolites (ca 0,1 m.) (Pl. II, Fig. 1, 2); black marly shales with intercalations of light grey biomicrites, and sedimentary breccia (ca. 0,65 m.) with seladonite; At a depth of 1704,0—1706,6 m.: sandy glauconitic gaizes (Pl. II, Fig. 3) with intercalations of black marly shales (ca. 2, 4 m); At 1715,0—1715,5 m. depth: spongiolite sedimentary breccia (ca. 0,1 m.) (Pl. II, Fig. 4) and sandstone, limestone sedimentary breccia (ca. 0,25 m.). No miorofauna has been found in the pelitic components of the Lower Gaize Beds. The age has been given as probably equivalent to that accepted for the Lower Gaize Beds of the Sub-Silesian unit of the Wadowice region (Książkiewicz, 1951).

Four tectonic units, composed mainly of flysch, have been drilled in the hole Łodygowice IG-1. These are incomplete, disrupted: Silesian-Godula nappe (Eocene, Oligocene-?Miocene), Silesian-Cieszyn nappe (Tithonian, ?Valanginian-Hauteriviain), „External” Silesian nappe (Hauterivian- Albain-?Cenomanian, Turonian-Senonian, Maestrichtian-Palaeocene, Palaeocene (Eocene), Sub-Silesian nappe (Hauterivian-?Barremian, Santonian-Campanian, ?Maestricht,ian-Palaeocene). These units differ in their lithostratigraphic successions (Fig. 3—7). Their tectonic interrelations permit the assumption that in the flysch basin the distribution of sedimentation areas of these units was as follows (from the north): Sub-Silesian, „External”-Silesian, Silesian-Cieszyn and Silesian-Godula. The ,,External”-Silesian nappe has not been well known up to now. The lithostratigraphic members of this nappe in the hole Łodygowice are mainly argillaceous and of little thickness.

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