Rozwój paleomorfologiczny zachodniej części regionu świętokrzyskiego pleistocenie

Leszek Lindner


Palaeomorphologic evolution of the western part of the Holy Cross region in Pleistocene

The collected observations (among others H. Ruszczyńska-Szenajch 1966, Różycki 1972a, Lindner 1971a, 1977a) suggest that the ice sheet of the oldest Scandinavian glaciation — of the Narevian (Günz) Glaciation did not reach the Holy Cross region (Fig. 1 and 2). During that time, the area was in a periglacial zone with developed slope processes which formed various colluvial deposits (Czarnocki 1927, 1931, Łyczewska 1971, 1972, Filonowicz 1972, Hakenberg and Lindner 1971, Lindner 1971a, 1977a). In some of the fossil depressions, these deposits have been dissected by a valley system shown on Fig. 3 presenting a river pattern during the Podlasian Interglacial (Cromerian). The first Scandinavian ice sheet that covered the described area was the ice sheet of the older part of the South-Polish Glaciation. This period, on the ground of data from the interglacial locality at Kozi Grzbiet (Lindner and Głazek 1976, Głazek et al., 1976, 1977 a, b), is considered to be a separate glaciation (Fig. 4) called the Nidanian Glaciation (Mindel I). Till of the Nidanian Glaciation and ice-dammed lacustrine and fluvioglacial deposits of the same age are erosively cut by a valley system presented on Fig. 5. In all previous papers this system was interpreted as created by interstadial river activity (Lindner 1976c, 1976d, 1977a). The faunistic locality at Kozi Grzbiet studied recently, the interglacial features of its fauna (Kowalski 1976, Stworzewicz 1976, Młynarski 1977, Rzebik-Kowalska 1976) and its age determined by means of FC1/P method (Głazek et al., 1977b) enables a change of this interpretation. Thus the valley system of that age may be considered to be created in the Malopolanian (Kozi Grzbiet) Interglacial, separating the South-Polish Glaciation into two individual glaciations (Fig. 2). The younger of the South-Polish glaciations was called the Sanian Glaciation (Mindel II). In the area of Poland this glaciation had its maximum extent and reached as far as the Carpathians. A differentiated pétrographic composition of tills of that glaciation suggests (Czarnocki 1931, 1975, Łyczewska 1971, Różycki 1972, Lindner 1977a) that the ice sheet must have entered the western part of the Holly Cross Mts. m two, opposite to each other, ice lobes connecting in a zone of „an ice suture” shown on Fig. 6. The erosive processes that started in a younger part of the Sanian Glaciation led to the formation of a well developed valley system in the Masovian (Holsiteinlian) Interglacial (Różycki 1961a, b, 1964a, b, 1972a, Ruszczyńska-Szenajoh 1966, Grzybowski 1972, Lindner 1971a, 1977a), presented on Fig. 7. During maximum of the Middle-Polish Glaciation, now referred to as the Odranian Glaciation, (Riss I) the Scandinavian ice sheet attempted several times to cover the described region (figs. 2, 8, 9, 10). The final retread of the ice sheet of the Odranian Glaciation during the Lublinian Interglacial (Ohe), led to intensive development of erosivedenudational and soil precesses (Fig. 2). The last Scandinavian glaciation that reached the northern margins of the Holy Cross region deposited a till of the Vartanian Glaciation (Riss II). In the area of the lower Pilica valley the till overlies loess (Fig, 2). The Eemian Interglacial in the Holy Cross region was a period of development of erosive-accumulative processes concentrating mainly in the river valleys (Hakenberg and Lindner 1971). In the upland areas, soil- -weathering processes have developed (Karaszewski et al., 1977) and depressions have been filled with organogenic deposits (Środoń and Gołąbowa 1956, Lindner and Ziembińska-Tworzydło 1974). During the Vistulian (Würm) Glaciation, the Holy Cross region was beyond the extent of the Scandinavian ice sheet, in a zone of periglacial processes. The older part of that period is connected with tripartite loess accumulation (Fig. 2) and valley accumulation (Fig. 11) while the younger part, with development of slope and dune processes.

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