Od "Mocht" do syntezy stratygrafii plejstocenu Polski

Stefan Z. Różycki


From Mochty to a synthesis of the Polish Pleistocene

In this paper the results of thirty years of scientific activity within the domain of Quaternary geology have been summed up. The studies have been carried on by the author and his followers, first as Chairman of the Physical Geography Department (1946—1951) and then as Chairman of the Institute of Quaternary Geology of Warsaw University (1952—1977) and in the Laboratory of Quaternary Geology of the Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences (1956—1977). Results of studies of those followers who have since left the mentioned institutes, but are working in other institutes and preservering the same scientific methods, have been also taken into account. The studies have been conducted using classical geological and geomorphological methods, starting with a detailed profiling of exposures along the edge of the Vistula valley near Mochty and the supplemented by archaeological, palaeozoological, palaeobotanical, palaeopedological, palaeolimnological, lithological, mineralogical, petrological, palaeogeomorphological and other studies, including not only Middle Poland, but also its north-western, eastern and southern parts. These works enabled to establish stratigraphic schemes of the Polish Quaternary that were presented in several successive synthetic studies (Różycki, 1961a, 1967, 1972). The stratigraphic scheme of 1972 takes into consideration all research methods mentioned above and from the point of view of rhythm, number and rank of Quaternary climatic oscillations is one of the most complete schemes in Europe. The newest stratigraphie subdivision of the Quaternary of Poland was presented by the author on June 6th 1977 at the Jubilee Session dedicated to the 50th anniversary of his research work. This subdivision also considers the results of studies carried out by means of the above mentioned methods, the palaeomagnetic data received lately and above all, the results of geochronologie studies carried out mainly by means of F-Cl-P(2)O(5) (Wysoczański-Minkowicz 1969), dated by C 14 method, initiated in Poland by W. Mościcki (1953) and by the thermo-luminescence method, started in Poland by M. Prószyński (Karaszewski et al.. 1977). The results obtained in that manner allowed to correlate the curves of alterations of the solar radiation caused by secular changes of the earth’s orbital parameters (Saraf, Pudnikova, 1967, 1968) and completion of previous stratigraphie schemes, accurately defining the rank of some climato-stratigraphic units and above all, a presentation of these units in a geochronologic scale. The supplement confirmed the correlation of the oldest continental Scandinavian glaciation with the Günz (comp. Różycki 1961 a, Michalska 1961 a, Straszewska 1968). This glaciation is to be called the Narew Glaciation (Narewian = Günz), in accordance with a principle of naming glaciations after rivers. The succeeding Podlasie Interglacial (Podlasian = Cromerian) is characteristic for its typical, fossil fluvial series (Straszewska 1968) and palynologie localities (Krause and Gross 1939), particularly in the northeastern Poland. The number of climato-stratigraphic units distinguished within the younger glaciations (South-Polish = Mindel and Middle-Polish = Riss) does not change in comparison with previous opinions (Różycki a, 1967, 1972). Instead, there is a change in rank of some climatic oscillations. Thus the warm period preceding the maximum substage of the South- Polish Glaciation obtain the rank of the Małopolska Interglacial (Malopolanian). This interglacial is supported by a palynologie locality at Jasionka (Laskowska-Wysoczańska 1967, Dąbrowski 1967) as well as palaeozoologically at Kozi Grzbiet (Kowalski 1975, 1976, Głazek et al., 1976, 1977, Stworzewicz 1976, Młynarski 1977). The large collagen index of analyzed bones and their absolute dating as 500—700 000 B. P. (Wysoczański-Minkowicz in: Głazek et al., 1976, 1977) played a large role in the understanding of the climate of that interglacial. The mentioned interglacial divides the South-Polish (Mindel) Glaciation into two glaciations: older — called the Nida Glaciation (Nidanian = Mindel I) and younger — called the San Glaciation (Sanian = Mindel II). The well-know and universally analyzed period of the Mazovian Interglacial (Holsteinian) does not change. It still contains frigido- and calido-stadials (Różycki 1961 a, b, 1964 a, b, 1967, 1972). On the other hand there is a change of rank one of the interstadials of the Middle-Polish Glaciation and limitation of its stages. The one is the interstadial separating the maximum substage of the Middle- Polish Glaciation from the following substage i.e. the Pilica interstadial after S. Z. Różycki (1961 a, 1972) and H. Ruszczyńska-Szejnach (1966). On the ground of palynologic criterion (Środoń 1969) as well as on palaeopedologic studies (Różycki 1961 a, 1967, Konecka-Betley and Ruszczyńska-Szenajch 1977) the period is of interglacial rank and is to be called the Lublin Interglacial (Lublinian). The preceding maximum substage of the Middle-Polish Glaciation is consequently of higher rank and is called the Odra Glaciation (Odranian = Riss I) while the younger substage, the following one, should be recognized as a separate Warta Glaciation (Wartanian = Riss II). Some recent data confirmed the postulated by S. Z. Różycki (1961 a, 1968, 1972) bipartition of the Eemian Interglacial, supported also by palynologie data (among others Z. Borówko-Dłużakowa 1960) and by a twofold marine transgression of the Eemian sea in the area of the lower Vistula valley (Makowska 1973, 1977). Concerning the North-Polish Glaciation, presently called the Vistula Glaciation (Vistulian = Würm), the new data permit a suggestion of the Scandinavian ice sheet advance in northern Poland in a period preceding the Leszno substage (Makowska 1973). Thus is the new stratigraphie scheme of the Quaternary of Poland there are six glaciations and five interglacial periods. All the glaciations except the first one (Nidanian, Sanian, Odranian, Wartanian and Vistulian), together with separating interglacials, form a part of Quaternary called Pleistocene (up to 690 000 B. P.) while the Narewian Glaciation together with the older part of Quaternary may be called Proto-pleistocene (690—1 800 000 B. P.)

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