Niektóre problemy czwartorzędu regionu Świętokrzyskiego

Janina Łyczewska


Problems of Quaternary investigations in the Holy Cross Mts.

Studies of the Quaternary deposits in the Holy Croiss Mts led to the conclusion that the Günz ice-sheet had a local character, as the oldest moraines consist of loams devoided of Scandinavian rock material (J. Czarnocki , 1927). These moraines, preserved in the upper parts of valleys in the central Holy Cross Mts, suggest the existence of rather small locail mountain glaciers. Sediments left by the Scandinavian ice-sheet corresponding to the Günz glaciation, consisting of residual moraine and fluvioglacial deposits were found in the gap sector of the Wisła valley (W. Pożaryski , 1953). The ice-sheet of the Mindel glaciation by-passed the Holy Cross Mts in the first phase, and only after the ice piled up against the Carpathians, the Holy Cross Mts were covered by ice flowing in a reversed direction i. e. northward. This direction of movement is indicated by the Mindel moraines containing blocks of Tertiary rocks, derived from the southern periphery of the Holy Cross Mts. The number of stadials of the Mindel glaciation remains still an unsolved problem. The ice-sheet oif (the Riss glaciation reached during two stadials the northern piedmont area of the Holy Cross Mts up to the Łysogóry range, while protruding ice-loibes .by-passed the mountains in the East and in the West. The area situated south of the line of the front of the Riss ice-sheet is covered by fluvio-periglacial deposits reaching up to the altitude of 300 m a.m.s.l. (J. Łyczewska, 1968). This accumulation was caused by damming of the Wisła valley by the ice-sheet. The fluvioglacial material is mixed with solifluction deposits derived from slopes of local hills. During the youngest, Würm glaciation, periglacial deposits accumulated in the Holy Cross Mts, first of all including the loess and large-scale solifluction deposits. The interglacial periods are proved by floras found in the north-western part of the Holy Cross Mts: the interglacial Mindel-Riss by the flora found at Sewerynów near Radoszyce (I. Jurkiewiczowa and K. Mamakowa, 1960), and the Riss-Würm interglacial by the flora found at Bedlno near Końskie (A. Środoń, M. Gołąbowa , 1956). The block-fields of Cambrian quartzitiie sandstones capping the ridges in the central part of the Holy Cross Mts were formed in periglacial conditions (W. Łoziński , 1912, T. Klatka, 1962). Locally the block-fields are overlying moraines of the Mindel glaciation, while the loess deposits associated with the Würm glaciation are covering them. J. Łyczewska (1963) suggested that the formation of the block-fields was related also with neotec tonic processes. Loess and loess-like deposits are associated with all glaciations and with all stadiails within glaciations. The iloess deposited during the Würm glaciation is most widespread and best preserved. It forms two horizons separated by a fossil soil. According to generally accepted opinions the loess was deposited by northern, eastern and south-eastern winds. The present author suggested also western and north-western winds. In this way the areas covered by loess can be genetically linked with areas of fluvio-periglaeial sands to the West the western and north-western winds formed dunes during steppe- -tundra phases of the Wiirm times (S. Z. Różycki , 1967), while the silt was blown farther East and accumulated in the form of loess covers and strips (J. Łyczewska, 1969).

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