Nasiąkliwość jako cecha wpływająca na zmianę barwy granitów poddanych działaniu czynników atmosferycznych

Marek Rębiś


Water absorption as a feature affecting the change of colour of granites exposed to atmospheric factors.
A b s t r a c t. The paper presents the results of tests on granite from the Strzegom-Sobótka Massif (Lower Silesia, Poland) and Delicia White granite from the state of Espírito Santo (southeastern Brazil), which were used as paving slabs. Strzegom granite revealed low water absorption – below 0.4% and anisotropy of the capillary absorption coefficient from about 1.1 to about 2.3 g/m2/s. In slabs with a higher value of this coefficient (above 2 g/m2/s), the solutions resulting from the decomposition of some grains (hematite and siderite) from the subgrade aggregate were moved through a system of capillary micro-fissures. As a result, rusty stains appeared on the surface of many slabs, significantly reducing their decorative value. All samples of Brazilian granite were characterized by water absorption with an average value of 0.44% and low anisotropy of the capillary water absorption coefficient in the range of approximately 1.6–1.7 g/m2/s. The surfaces of the slabs had previously been subjected to thermal treatment. As a result, a near-surface zones with several-millimetre thick microcraks appeared in some of them. In such cases, the value of the capillary absorption coefficient increased to approximately 1.8 g/m2/s. Rainwater containing atmospheric gas and dust particles penetrated the pore space of the rock and reacted with highly weathered biotite and iron oxides and hydroxides. The decomposition products of these minerals dispersed in water moved through a system of capillary cracks towards the surface of drying stone, creating rusty spots. Research has shown that a low water absorption value of less than 0.5% is not a sufficient condition to ensure the stone's resistance to the destructive effects of environmental conditions. To assess the suitability of granite for use as an outdoor surface slab, it is also necessary to test its water capillary absorption coefficient. It is acceptable to use granite with a high anisotropy of the capillary absorption coefficient, provided that the method of cutting and laying the slabs ensures the transport of moisture in the direction corresponding to the lowest value of this coefficient.

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