Typy przemieszczeń grawitacyjnych mas skalnych w obrębie form osuwiskowych polskich Karpat fliszowych

Włodzimierz Margielewski


Patterns of gravitational movements of rock masses in landslide forms of the Polish Flysch Carpathians.
S u m m a r y. Patterns of gravitational movements in the Flysch Carpathians are connected with tectonic and lithologic anisotropy of the rock massifs. The paper reviews the baisic patterns of mass movemets in the Flysch Carpathians: toppling, translational, rotational and compound sliding, sagging and complex type of mass movement, ilustrated by selected forms using the structural (joints, faults) analysis. Toppling in the Carpathians is typical for double ridge and top trenches (example: Gaworzyna double ridge in the Beskid Sądecki Mts). Translational landslides with flat, „structural” sliding surface typical for shallow forms, might form along the bedding plane (example: Duszatyn and Prełuki landslides,Western Bieszczady Mts), as well as along the joints an fault surface. The classification of ”structural landslides” commonly used nowadays, pertains only to translational landslides. In deep-seated landslides the shearing zone will be combined, composed of structural sections (joints, faults, bedding plane) and shearing elements. Thus, to majority Carpathians landslides develop as mixed type (non circular) grouping complex movement, involving of various types of displacement: rotational–translational–toppling. Purely rotational movements with circular failure are developed in the Carpathians flysch massifs, when thick bedded sandstoned (resistant) are underlain by soft shales (example: pure rotational lndslide in Mt Kostrza in Beskid Wyspowy Mts). Influence of anisotropy of these rocks on sliding surface is strong by reduced, and soft rock favours rock flow (sagging) development, usually transformed later in to a rotational type of movement (example: rotational landslide with toppling and sagging elements on Mt Muronka. in Beskid Śląski Mts). Very interesting mixed landslide on Mt Luboń Wielki (Beskid Wyspowy Mts) represents alistric (antithetic) type of landslide.

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