Uwagi o rozwoju jaskiń w strukturze płaszczowinowej Czerwonych Wierchów w Tatrach

Maria Bac-Moszaszwili, Tomasz Nowicki


Remarks on caves development in the Czerwone Wierchy Nappe in the Tatra Mts.
Summary. The Czerwone Wierchy Nappe is the main part of the Czerwone Wierchy Massif (Fig. 1). Several big cave systems are developed in this structural unit, e.g., Wielka Śnieżna Cave System, Kozia, Ptasia, Mała w Mułowej and a lot of smaller caves. Cross-section I (Fig. 1) presents two main parts of Czerwone Wierchy Nappe—Organy and dziary units which are separated by the Organy Dislocation. Similar structure is characteristic for whole Czerwone Wierchy Nappe (Kotański, 1963). The abundance of caves near Organy fault is a result of intensive tectonic processes in this area (see Fig. 4, cross-section II) what is visible at the western slope of the Miętusia Valley. Further to the east (Fig. 1), so far scientists (Kotański, 1961; Grodzicki & Kardaś, 1989) suggested that whole the Wielka Śnieżna Cave System is developed within the  dziary Unit. Our geological cross-sections of the upper part of Miętusia Valley, (based on Grochocka-Rećko, 1963) show that only upper, vertical parts of Wielka Śnieżna and Śnieżna Studnia caves are developed in the dziary Unit, similarly as the upper, vertical part of the Mała Cave. Lower parts of cave systems are related to the Organy Dislocation and the Organy Unit. It seems that geological structure of the Czerwone Wierchy Massif is a dominant factor controlling the cave passages development. As a results of geological structure, the main path of water flow, at the level ca. 1000 m a.s.l., from lower parts of Wielka Śnieżna Cave in Miętusia Valley towards Lodowe źródło in Kościeliska Valley developed solely along Middle Triassic layers in a latitudinal fold turn of the Organy Unit (Mała £ąka Fold, Kotański, 1961).

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