Hydrogeologiczny aspekt w identyfikacji i ochronie ekosystemów zależnych od wód podziemnych

Ewa Krogulec, Katarzyna Sawicka


Hydrogeological aspect in identification and protection of groundwater-dependent ecosystems.
A b s t r a c t. Protection of water and water-depended ecosystems, in a view of their huge environmental role and high sensitivity to changes of environmental conditions, is one of the fundamental issues included in the legal acts in force, agreements, international conventions, directives and projects. Strong variety of groundwater-depended ecosystems practically causes impossibility to elaborate on an universal methodology for defining their environmental needs. Wetlands are one of the most differentiated groundwater-depended ecosystems, for which the programmes of hydrogeological researches in the range of diagnosis and prognosis of groundwater level changes necessitate an individual adjustment to the study area. Researches of the
groundwater-depended ecosystems, including wetlands, mostly in a range of their protection and renaturalisation, require an interdisciplinary approach. On the basis of the researches conducted in the wetland areas in the Kampinos National Park, different hydro-environmental factors determining groundwater level changes in those wetlands were presented. The variety of values and dependences were obtained as a results of the conducted calculations of groundwater levels correlation with different factors. Results of the researches allow to point at the regions, where groundwater levels dependence on precipitation values is significant and the regions, where other factors than infiltration recharge values, have important impact on
groundwater table depth. An analysis of trend of changes requires constant update of the monitoring data concerning of groundwater levels in wetland areas. The valorization of vegetation cover and soils done directly (locally) during the field works or on the basis of the papers containing soil characteristic and peatland documentations, requires generalization, adapted to the specificity of the hydrogeological researches in regional scale. Huge spatial differentiation, time-change variation, and secondary transformation processes of the vegetation and soil types, causes, that the results of the vegetation and habitat studies can not be directly used for identification of the factors determining groundwater table level.

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