ARTYKUŁY NAUKOWE Infiltracja do wód podziemnych na podstawie pomiarów lizymetrycznych w Górach Sowich

Stanisław Staśko, Michał Chodacki


Groundwater infiltration based on lysimeter measurements in the Sowie Mountains (SW Poland).
A b s t r a c t. Field research on effective infiltration has been carried out in the Sowie Mountains area in the Sudetes Mountains (SW Poland) in a lysimeter installed 0.9 m below the surface of the ground in a forest. The annual rainfall in 2011 has been measured in the range 520.9–644.8 mm for the three station, while the average precipitation of the long term observation indicate 880 mm. Air temperature was 2°C higher during experiment period from the typical to the region. During annual study (from April 2011 to May 2012) it has been measured effective infiltration volume as 78.1 mm of water in comparison total precipitation of 596.7 mm in nearest station. Groundwater recharge by infiltration is changing during the year as well as in longer period, occurs mainly in cool season (spring, autumn) and indicate impulsive nature.
The highest rate was reported in the October-November period, infiltration has exceeded the 30% of the precipitation, what could be explained by the high degree of saturation of the aeration zone. The departure value recorded in the summer relates to the degree of saturation of the aeration zone and there is high rainfall of the order of 200 mm. Then at the turn of July and August there has been measured a 54 mm percolating water. However, in August and September when rainfall over 107 mm water percolation was only 0.5 mm. Recharge and water supply in summer precipitation requires an initialization precipitation value order of 30–50 mm to supplement the state of moisture contains and high transpiration of plants. Infiltrating water showed of nitrate-sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium-sodium chemical type. In the process of infiltration increase of total dissolved solids almost twice has been measured.Water are enriched in the ions+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Cl, NO3, SO42– is observed while the reduction of the concentration of HCO3 and NH4+. Chemical water composition is quite similar to the water in the stream located close to the lisymeter point.

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