Strukturalne uwarunkowania rozwoju rzeźby Karpat zewnętrznych – nowe spojrzenie

Leszek Jankowski, Włodzimierz Margielewski


Structural control on the Outer Carpathians relief – a new approach.
A b s t r a c t. The article presents a new concept of structural control on the Outer Carpathians relief. The Carpathians’ relief development originated in the stage of sedimentary basin deposition (e.g., gravitational positioning of fragments of rock massif), as well as in the compressional stage of the orogen formation, and, finally, in the stage of secondary tectonic deformation, such as: strike-slip faulting, radial extension, and great extensional collapse of the Carpathian massifs. The difference in elevation between the Beskidy Mts. and Carpathian Foothills belt is caused by the structural position of these segments of rock massifs within an accretionary prism formed during the compressional stage. The tectonic elements formed during the earliest
stage of compression (Magura, Dukla and southern Silesian units forming the High Beskid zone) attain the highest structural and elevation position, whereas the elements included as the last ones to the accretionary prism (Sub-Silesian and Skole units) take a lower topographic position, forming the foothills belt. A concept that gravitational collapse generated back-thrusts and tectonic exhumation of the Carpathian massifs allows us to explain seemingly considerable erosional unroofing of the Carpathian surface, estimated at several kilometres. Alternating position of elevated and lowered mountain ridges (Bieszczady–Beskid Niski–Beskid Wyspowy–Beskid Makowski Mts.) can be explained by their association with a major strike-slip fault. Chaotic complexes frequently occurring in the Carpathians are very important for the relief transformation and development of river network (controlled not only by dislocations, but also by chaotic complexes), as well as for the presence of erosional remnants (isolated hills representing blocks in matrix).

Full Text:

PDF (Polish)