Tradycje poszukiwań i wykorzystania surowców mineralnych na Ponidziu

Jan Urban, Jerzy Gągol


History of prospection and use of mineral resources in the Ponidzie region.
A b s t r a c t. Mineral resources of the Ponidzie region, whose usage played an important role in the economic and cultural history of Poland, or whose geological surveys contributed to the development of geological sciences include: Pińczów limestones, gypsum, sulphur, oil and salt (although salt does not occur in this region). The Pińczów limestones have been commonly used for construction and sculpture since the Early Middle Ages, particularly intense during the Renaissance and Baroque periods as well as in the mid-20th century. Also the tradition of gypsum usage dates back to the beginning of the Polish State, which is proved by Early Medieval monuments in Wiślica. Although the sulphur extraction in the Czarkowy mine took place only during the 19th century, this mine was famous as the only one in the Russian Empire. In turn, the discovery of oil near the village of Wójcza in the second half of the 19th centur, caused geological discussion on the sources of this product in the Fore-Carpathian Depression. However, the most interesting is the salt prospection in the 18th and 19th centuries. Owing to the lack of salt in the region, the survey was not successful, but contributed to the comprehensive geological recognition of the region as well as provided springs of mineral water which are still used or has stimulated growth of unique halophilic plant communities.

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