Pierwiastki ziem rzadkich (REE) w środowiskach powierzchniowych litosfery

Paweł Kwecko


Rare Earth Elements (REE) in surface environments of the lithosphere.
A b s t r a c t. In the Polish geochemical literature there is no general discussion of the occurrence and behaviour of REE in surface environments. This text is an attempt to review the world literature concerning the REE occurrence and behaviour mainly in rocks, minerals (primary and secondary) and soils, and during hypergenic and soil-forming processes. The article also presents the atomic structure and properties of REE, their divisions and participation in the biosphere, organic matter and sediments of selected Polish lakes and, additionally, anthropogenic sources. Particular attention is given to primary and secondary REE minerals and their presence in rocks, soils (including soil-forming processes) and hypergenic processes. The main source of REE is the primary minerals of acid and siliceous igneous rocks and secondary minerals of sedimentary rocks. Among primary minerals the largest quantities of REE are concentrated in heavy minerals (anatase, ilmenite, sphene, rutile and zircon). Basic silicate weathering leads to the formation of secondary clay minerals which, together with iron and manganese oxides and carbonates, are the main sources of REE as secondary minerals.

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