Surowce kluczowe, strategiczne i krytyczne dla polskiej gospodarki

Barbara Radwanek-Bąk, Krzysztof Galos, Marek Nieć


Pivotal, strategic and critical mineral raw materials for the Polish economy.
A b s t r a c t. Comprehensive and harmonious economic development of each country depends on the availability of raw materials, in particularcmineral deposits, necessary for the functioning of the various industries that produce the substances and equipment required to meet the needs of the population, and for the efficient operation of agriculture and transport. The identification of raw materials, which are important for the country, is the basis of mineral policy and strategy. Diverse conditions of production of mineral raw materials result in their division into groups of different importance for the national economy. In Poland, three independent proposals for determining economically important mineral raw materials were
developed. Despite their intuitive, similar approaches, various raw materials were identified as pivotal, strategic and critical. We would like to clarify their definitions: Pivotal raw materials – essential for the proper functioning of the economy and satisfying the needs of the society, those whose supply must be assured; Strategic raw materials – not sufficiently (at least 90%) supplied from domestic sources, or whose opportunities for permanent supply are limited or threatened (including the raw materials necessary for the
development of innovative technologies); Critical raw materials – those whose chance of gaining (from both primary and secondary sources) is of high risk and their substitutability is low (in particular raw materials on the EU Critical List). There are 27 pivotal raw materials, especially important for the Polish economy, which are distinguished by the importance of raw materials and the importance of the substitution of raw materials. The list of strategic raw materials counts 36 items and includes a number of pivotal raw materials, important for the economy but being deficient in Poland. Eighteen mineral raw materials were considered critical. Depending on the changing, widely understood market conditions, such lists should be reviewed and updated at least every 5 years.

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