Deterioracja kamiennych obiektów budowlanych – główne czynniki i procesy

Michał Ruszkowski, Janina Wiszniewska


Deterioration of stone buildings – main factors and processes.
A b s t r a c t. The condition of stone building objects is determined by many physicochemical factors and destructive processes. All stone materials are subject to natural aging, losing many of their primordial properties. The destructive processes and decline of the stone quality are termed the “deterioration” (Latin: deterior – worse). This definition is close to that of rock weathering. However, weathering and deterioration are two different concepts.Weathering is a large-scale process related to large rock masses located in a geological environment. By contrast, deterioration refers to processes destroying a stone material, which has already been treated with stonework. The most known field of research for the deterioration processes are all historical old monuments. It is assumed that the deterioration reaches such a depth as those influenced by changes that take place on the stone object surface during the adsorption of solar radiation and deep penetration of oxygen and carbonated water, coming from infiltration of atmospheric precipitation or surface water. The most prominent factors of deterioration are caused by temperature changes, crystallization pressure of salts dissolved in water, gaseous pollutants and dust contained in the air, wind, hail and snow action, adsorption of acidic chemical substances, and dust particles, activity of microorganisms, fungi and lichens living on surfaces of monuments.

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