Profil plejstocenu w Dwikozach nad Opatówką

Maria Bielecka



The Pleistocene profile uncovered by the present author at the left slope of the Opatówka river valley, west of the village Dwikozy, yielded new data and explained the stratigraphy at the older Quaternary in the eastern part of the Świętokrzyskie Mts. Region. The following are lithostratigraphical members distinguished here by the author: 1 – quartz-calcareous sandstone of Sarmatian age; which makes the base of the Pleistocene series; 2 – ashen-grey sand, with the Carpathian gravel, referred to the so-called Preglacial; 3 – ashen-grey boulder clay, with distinct traces of outwash and erosion processes at the top, representing the partly reduced lower glacial series, related to the South-Polish Glaciation; 4 – orange-coloured, coarse-grained sands, showing distinct dip angle of laminae within the individual banks, having fragments of boulder clays, pebbles of varved clays completely washed out, and gravel material accumulated at the top; 5 – light sands, distinctly separated from the overlying series. The sandy series 4 and 5 represent two cycles of river accumulation, tentatively referred by the present author to the Great Interglacial; 6 – dark ashen-grey, calcareous clay; 7 – grey, arenaceous clay with the intercalations of fine-grained, grey-yellow sand; 8 – brown boulder clay, which is here the top member of the upper glacial series that consists also of the 6 and 7 beds, which represent ice-dammed lake sediments laid down during the transgression of the ice sheet at the Middle Polish Glaciation time; 9 – light yellow subareal loess, cracking vertically, thought to be an equivalent of the North Polish Glaciation. The situation observed to appear in the profile at Dwikozy may be traced, within the Opatówka river basin, at numerous natural and artificial exposures, and in the bore holes. As an example may serve here the profile of a working part of the river basin mentioned before. The occurrence of two. Different in age, glacial series, separated with a series of river sands, in one profile, and the distinct outwash and erosion traces allow us to incorporate the eastern part of the Sandomierz – Opatów Upland into the areas, which, during the Middle Polish Glaciation, were covered by the transgressing ice sheet.

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