Naturalne wody Ziemi

Władimir Fiodorowicz Dorpholz, Genadij Nikołajewicz Katterfeld



New, quantitative character of the Earth's hydrospheres is given, one of these hydrospheres, i.e. the underground hydrosphere, being subdivided into: 1 - the upper hydrosphere, free and physical-chemically bounded, and 2 - the lower hydrosphere, free only in the supercritical fluidal state. Down to a depth of about 5 km, the free ground waters of the hypergenesis zone distinguish themselves by a circular dynamics, below - down to the Mohorovičić surface - by. a radial dynamics upwards. The last phenomenon depends upon the potential difference between the upper and lower parts of the lithosphere for all kinds of mechanical, thermal, chemical, electromagnetic energy, a.o. This leads, by filtration and diffusion processes, to the transportation of fluid upwards. The filtration of liquids is due to the difference in mobility of constituents. The fluids move in the lower part of the lithosphere, too, probably also in the upper part of the Earth's mantle. The most part of the free natural water, not only of the surface but also of the upper part of the hydrosphere, belongs to chloride mineralized and brine-like solutions that make the hydrochlorozone of the Earth. These chloride waters from the upper parts of the hydrochlorozones no doubt belong to calcium and magnesium ones; in the upper parts they change into a natrium type here. The above planetary geochemical stratification may be explained by the mobility of bivalent calcium and magnesium ions, in comparison with the monovalent natrium ions, under changing thermodynamical conditions in the lithosphere upwards.

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