Metalogeneza Europy

Czesław Harańczyk



In view of the lack of metallogenic studies of Europe from the angle of the modern mobilistic theories, the author undertook such studies making use of the previously presented classification of metal ore deposits. With the development of the mobilism theory the existing works of Petrascheck, Ramowicz, Bilibin and Szczegłow have becamce at least partly outdated. The work of Gabelman and Krusiewicki presented at the last Geological Congres concerns mainly the area of north-western Europe. The new approach was the result of the recently elaborated detailed metallogeny of the particular countries and a revision of many widely spread views. This refers, first of all. to the area of the North Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, Spain, Balcan peninsula and the Central Europe. The new approach to metallogeny of Europe takes into account for the first time; (1) the principle of desintegration and agglomeration of the older metallogenic provinces; (2) the principle of synchronism of the development of metallogenic processes in various zones of lithosphere plates and of a new approach to metallogenic cycle; (3) general principles cd the plate tectonics theory; (4) the first classification of metal ores deposits based on principles of the mobilism, earlier elaborated by the author. For the first time in the metallogeny the existence of Benioff zone underneath the Central Europe in the Paleozoic times has been considered. Metallogenic development of the Mediterranean region has been analysed on the background of the movement of lithosphere plates (as reconstructed by Hsü and Hetz for the Mediterranean Sea and the Balkans areas, respectively). Metallogeny of Benioff zone has been accepted according to Sawkins, with due consideration of Smirnow's interpretation concerning, the Ural and Caucasus Mountains. The position of porphyry deposits is accepted after Silitoe and the observations reported by Guild are taken into account in the characteristics of marginal zones of lithosphere plates . The paper deals with the metallogeny of Europe from the Cambrian till the present. The lack of mobilistic reconstructions for earlier periods precluded taking into account the oldest metallogenes. Two main metallogenic cycles are distinguished. The first cycle comprises the times of closing the oldest oceans (Posejdon and Tethys Oceans), that is it concerns the Caledonian and Variscan metallogenes of earlier authors. The second cycle is synchroneuous with the development of the Atlantic, thus it concerns the Alpine and Laramic metallogenes of earlier authors. A map of development, agglomeration, disintegration and consumption of ancient lithosphere plates is given. Another map ,concerning metallogeny of Europe is elaborated using metallogenic symbols consistent with earlier classification of metal ore deposits. The last chapter of the paper presents conclusions and metallogenic prognoses following from this new approach to the metallogeny of Europe.

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