Jednostki geologiczne Polski

Władysław Pożaryski



The division presented here does not comprise the Tertiary and the Quaternary, which rest, except for the Carpathians, everywhere unconformably on the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic substratum in Poland. This division is also not exactly a tectonical one; it means rather a stratigraphic-tectonical division and comprises only geological structure down to a few kilometres in depth.
In the gross, the Polish territory is divided into a north-eastern part belonging to the East European platform, and a south-western one being a mobile area manifold folded. These parts are divided along a boundary running between the Middle Polish anticlinorium and the marginal synclinorium.
The platform part, in turn, is divided into an internal platform zone (a typical one), and an external platform zone known as marginal synclinorium, being a platform part abruptly dipping to the west. The internal zone is dismembered into several secondary units perpendicularly running to the platform margin; these are of syneclise and anteclise type.
Along the platform margin there runs the Middle Polish anticlinorium crossing the area of Poland from NW towards SE and dipping in the south under the Carpathians. The anticlinorium runs obliquely to the Palaeozoic foldings, interfering with these latter and giving some elevations and depressions in its area. The southern sector of this anticlinorium, i.e. the anticlinorium of the lower San river, which was highest uplifted during the Cretaceous and the Palaeogene, was eroded as much as about 3000 m. during the Miocene.
This unit is surrounded from the south-west by the Szczecin-Łódź-Miechów synclinorium, which is also divided into elevations and depressions due to the crossing with the older tectonical units, obliquely running within the substratum.
The Fore-Sudetic monocline; bordering on the synclinorium is distinctly divided into two zones conditioned by the folded Variscian massif sticking in the substratum in its southern part. The Silesian-Cracow monocline entirely resting on the folded Palaeozoic substratum makes its prolongation to the south-east.
The Sudetes were subdivided into three units, of which the North-Sudetic block and the West Sudetes are of Caledonian age with the Variscian regeneration. The East Sudetes are Variscian mountain massif stretching from Moravia to Poland. These surround from the west the Upper Silesian basin, which as concerns its origin is a Variscian intermontane basin.

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