Budowa geologiczna i morfologia terenu Warszawy

Ludwik Sawicki



The development of Warsaw in the site in which it is situated depended upon the character of terrain and on the ancient water and land trails. The terrain features of Warsaw are shown on the geomorphological map (Fig. 1).
Fig. 2. shows the Vistula old-valley cross-section of the W-E direction across Warsaw. Within the old-valley the Warsaw and Praga-quarter terrains contain the horizons of different age and various geological structure. The Warsaw horizon is an erosional old-Vistula terrace one from the recession period of the Middle-Polish glaciation.
The Praga-quarter terrace exclusively consist of sands deposited by the old-Vistula during Kujawy-Mazury stage (Mecklenburgian stage) of the last Nord-Polish glaciation.
As the results of the detailed stratigraphical investigations carried out in the area of northern quarter of Warsaw along the continuous 52 km long profile as well as of the studies of left high wall of the Vistula valley along Bielany-Młociny 2 km long sector – the occurrence of 4 different horizons of basal moraine has been established.
The deposits separating the above mentioned horizons may be show of the fourfold glaciation of this part of Polish Lowland, hence the Warsaw terrain too (12, 14).
The stratigraphical investigations of Pleistocene, carried out during the later years in the various areas of Poland, have confirmed the above results and completed the number of glaciations – together with the Nord-Polish one (Baltic glaciation) – to six.

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