Osady interglacjału w Zwierzyńcu na Kurpiach

Alicja Bałuk, Zofia Dłużakowa, Sylwester Skompski



The section Zwierzyniec is located in southwestern part of the Kurpie Plain (Fig. 1); within a sub-Quaternary depression that has been lately found in the Lower Narew drainage basin (3). Pleistocene sediments are there 211.5 m thick and are underlain by Miocene sandy deposits (Fig. 2). A borehole enabled detailed studies of Quaternary series and supplied with samples for lithologic-petrographic and mineralogic (8) as well as paleontologic analyses. Paleobotanic (Z. Dłużakowa) and faunistic (S. Skompski) investigations deal mainly with lake-marshy sediments in upper part of the section that contained rich plant remains and fossil molluscs. Biostratigraphic results of these analyses compliment one another and speak for the Mazovian Interglacial age of the studied sediments. As such it is very important for stratigraphy of the Pleistocene of northeastern Mazowsze. Basing on all the results and with connections to boreholes in neigh boring areas, the Pleistocene sediments at Zwierzyniec were found to contain series of the South Polish (Nida, San and Wilga) and Middle Polish Glaciations as well as of the Małopolska, Kurpie and Mazovian Interglacials. Lithofacies of glacial deposits are described, being equivalents of glacial stages, and also of lake and fluvial series corresponding to separating interglacials. Results of paleobotanic studies are presented in detail and illustrated by a pollen diagram (Fig. 3). The latter enabled to distinguish two pollen periods, typical for the II and III ones of pollen sequences during the Mazovian Interglacial. The period II is predominated by Pinus and Betula, with smaller participation of Picea, Abies, Alnus and presence of Osmunda, Salvinia and Tsuga. There are considerable contents of Carpinus and Quercus, some of Ulmus, Tilia, Taxus, Corylus, Frangula, Evonymus and Hedera helix. During the both periods there are Juglans and Pterocarya. Fruits and seeds were also determined. Results of analyses of fossil fauna (14 samples) enabled to draw the conclusions on paleoecology, paleoclimatology and stratigraphy. Animal remains contained molluscs, ostracods, fishes, rodents and insects. Two key species of molluscs i.e. Lithoglyphus jahni Urbański and Viviparus diluvianus (Kunth) speak for the Mazovian Interglacial age of deposits. Ecology and climatic demands of molluscs and ostracods suggest 5 phases of lake evolution (Fig. 4). A climate of that time was defined as temperately cool with transition to temperately warm.

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