Problemy korelacji głównych jednostek stratygraficznych czwartorzędu środkowo-zachodniej Europy

Leszek Lindner



Last attempts to synchronize the main stratigraphic units of the terrestrial Quaternary with 18O stages that recorded climatic changes of this time in deep-sea sediments (3, 5, 14, 16, 17, 33, 37-39) made the author correlate these units in mid-western Europe (Fig.). The Early Quaternary of mid-western Europe, named in Poland the Pre-pleistocene, is found to be devoid of continental glaciations. It was started by the cold Pretegelen (35-37), corresponding to the cold Różce Interval in Poland (2, 29), and followed by the warm Tegelen (35, 37), referred to the warm Ponurzyca Interval in Poland (2, 29). In the British Isles the Late Tegelen is correlated with sediments of the warm Lundhamian, the cold Turnian and the warm Antian (35). The younger Pre-pleistocene in Poland is represented in Poland by the cold Otwock Interval (2, 15 -17, 29) correlated with the Eburon (35-37), the lower part of which encloses sediments of the cold Baventian (35). The youngest Pre-pleistocene in Poland is recorded by the warm Celestynów Interval (2, 14-17, 29) correlated with the warm Waal (35) in western Europe. The glacial Quaternary, commonly named the Pleistocene with its eight continental glaciations (17), is subdivided in Poland into Early, Middle and Late ones (Fig.) .The Early PIeistocene started with the mid-European Narew Glaciation, corresponding to the cold Menap in the extraglacial area. The Early Pleistocene in Poland ended with the PodIasie (Kijewice) IntergIadal (1, 2, 17) of varying climatic conditions. It should comprise three interglacial warmings: Bavel s.s., Leerdam and Interglacial I (in the Dutch Cromer Complex), separated by two glacial coolings: Linge and Dorst (37). The Middle Pleistocene is expressed in Poland by three South-Polish Glaciations (Elsterian sensu Iato) separated by two interglacials, the tripartite Great Interglacial (Holsteinian sensu lato) and by two Middle-Polish Glaciations (Saalian sensu Iato) separated by an interglacial (Fig.). The first was the Nida Glaciations (14-17, 29) that corresponds to the Glacial A in western Europe (Fig.). The following warming is indicated in Poland by the MałopoIska (Przasnysz) Interglacial (10, 14-17,29) and in western Europe by the Interglacial I and II together with the separating Glacial B within the Dutch Cromer Complex (Fig.) In the British Isles the older part of this interglacial should correspond to the warm Pastonian (35). The second was the San 1 Glaciation in Poland (14-17). It refers to the Elsterian 1 in Germany (7, 8) the Glacial C in the Netherlands (37), the Beestonian (1) or thepre-Cromerian glacial sediments in the British Isles (4). The following warming was bi-optimal in Poland and indicated by the Ferdynandów Interglacial (11, 14-17, 29). It corresponds to the Voigtstedt (9) and Frimmersdorf (30) interglacial in Germany, and to the Interglacial IV in the Netherlands (within the Cromer Complex of that area). In the British Isles this stratigraphic position should be occupied by interglacial sediments of the sites Waverly Wood and West Runton = Cromerian (5). The third South-Polish Glaciation i.e. the San 2 (Wilga) Glaciation (14-17,29) corresponds to the Elsterian 2 in Germany and the Netherlands (7, 8, 33) and the Anglian Glaciation in the British Isles (3 - 5~ 26, 32, 35). Within the tripartite Great Interglacial (Holsteinian sensu lato, Hoxnian sensu lato) its older warming is represented in Poland by the Mazovian Interglacial (14-17, 29). It corresponds to the Holstein s.s. Interglacial (9, 30, 37) and sediments of the Swanscombe site (5) in western Europe. The younger warming is represented in Poland by the Zbójno Interglacial (18, 34) corresponding to the Domnitz Interglacial (7 - 9), the warming Hoogoven-Bantega (31) and the Hoxnian s.s. Interglacial (5) in western Europe. Both these warmings were separated in Poland by the Liwiec Glaciation (14-17, 29) in Germany by the Fuhne cooling (7-9), and in the Netherlands by aeolian and fluvial sediments in top of alluvia of the Holsteinian Interglacial (31). The Middle-Polish (Saalian sensu lato) Glaciations in Poland are indicated by two series of glacial sediments. The older ones of the Odra Glaciation (14-17, 29) are correlated in Germany and in the Netherlands with the Drenthe Glaciation (6, 30, 31) and in the British Isles with the Wolstenian Glaciation (3 - 5,26, 32, 35). The younger glacial series is represented by the Warta (Warthe) Gladation (7-9, 14-17, 29). Both these glaciations are separated in Poland by the Lubawa Interglacial (13,17), named also the Pilica Interglacial (29). This stratigraphic position is occupied by the Karlich Interglacial in Germany (30) and sediments of the Stanton Harcourt site in the British Isles (5). The Late Pleistocene in mid-western Europe is represented by the Eemian (Ipswichian) IntergIacial and the following Wisła (Vistulian, Weichsel, Devensian) Glaciation (3-9,14-17, 29). The Holocene is the youngest main stratigraphic unit of the Quaternary (Fig.). It is considered to be the reference of climatic conditions and geological processes of interglacial type (27).

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