Ochrona przyrody nieożywionej w Polsce na tle Europy

Zofia Alexandrowicz



Activity in protection of monuments in situ of inanimate nature has a national character. One of the main aims of new organization, born in 1988 – European Working Group on Earth Science Conservation – is preparing in the international principles, allowing to settle the best system of protection of inanimate nature in Europe. Recently in many European countries the modern law, teoretical and practical principles for understanding and development of this idea do not exist but abiotic environment is gradually devastated and transformed. Preservation of its natural elements in such manner that they could reflect essential features of geological structure any morphology of any region, should be realized in two ways. Most common one seems protection of various objects within areas, limited with administration boundaries. Second way means scientific description and valution of natural monuments, particularly when they characterize important geological formations. These investigations give well documented projects, regarding different geological and geomorphological units and also some suggestions about theoretical and practical protection principles. Such studies are carried on in Pracownia Ochrony Przyrody Nieożywionej Zakładu Ochrony i Zasobów Naturalnych PAN in Kraków. Poland is included in group of European countries, advanced in protection of inanimate nature. Basing on the Act of Nature Protection from 1949 were settled here 41 reservations of inanimate nature with total area of 911 ha and 1550 monuments of that type, mainly erratic boulders (Fig. 1). Also in 260 nature reservations of other types are placed important abiotic structures. The most valid elements of protection system are national parks (16) as complex and most valuable natural areas (Fig. 1). Stratigraphic analysis of monuments of inanimate nature in Poland indicates they represent all geological periods (Tab. I), but commonly they are single or have low scientific value. Similar analysis related to stratigrafic stages on any area documents many privations in protection index (Tab. H). The valuation range of protected geological objects could be defined according other essential gauges as petrographic, sedimentological or tectonic features. Protection stage of geomorphological objects should be analysed according their genetic variabilities. The main aims of such complex analysis are: - systematic enlarging the objects scope of protection and documentation works, - monuments adaptation for new scientific and education functions.