Metale ciężkie we współczesnych osadach aluwialnych Wisły, Odry, Warty i Bugu

Izabela Bojakowska, Gertruda Sokołowska, Tadeusz Sztyrak

Abstrakt


HEAVY METALS IN BOTTOM DEPOSITS OF VISTULA, ODRA, WARTA AND BUG RIVERS

Summary
Heavy metals mobilized due to technical activity that are introduced into surface waters, are very quickly accumulating in bottom sediments. Therefore the concentration of heavy metals in alluvial deposits is a very good indicator of pollution of water environment by these elements. A comparison of content of some trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn) in sediments of main rivers of Poland is presented in the paper. Samples of recent alluvial deposits have been taken along the rivers: Vistula (16 samples), Odra (19), Warta (17) and Bug (11). Pollution of alluvial deposits of Odra River appears considerable in respect to As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn. The average content of these elements is.22.5 ppm, 500 ppm, 80 ppm, 103 ppm, 95 ppm, and 1230 ppm, respectively. Pollution of bottom deposits of Odra River by Ba and Zn from the state boundary in Chałupki till Kostrzyń is remarkable. The pollution by As and Cu is especially great below the mouth of Kaczawa River. Bottom sediments of Vistula River are characterized by a considerable pollution by Cd (average content is 14.5 ppm). Very polluted are alluvial deposits of the upper part of the river near Oświęcim (Cd - 135 ppm, Pb - 350ppm, Zn - 2980 ppm). In the upper part of Warta River the deposits are polluted by Zn (1630 ppm in Ligota G6rna and 1060 ppm in Zawiercie) and the sediments of the lower part near Wronki are polluted by Cd (71 ppm), Cr (280 ppm) and Zn (662 ppm). The alluvial deposits of Bug River are characterized by very high Sr content and small content of other studied elements.