Hydrogeologiczne problemy projektowania systemów wodno-gospodarczych

Jacek Szymanko, Sławomir Łodziński



An old question of relations between disposable resources of surface and underground waters has been encountered in designing hydro-economical systems, especially premises for designs of the Vistula River drainage basin system. The solution of that question, directly connected with conception of realizing the aims of the "Wisła Programme", is indispensable for obtaining actually most appropriate design resolutions.
The paper presents a general conception and aims which should be fulfilled by hydro-economic systems. The structure and feedbacks occurring in natural water system interpreted as an object of regulation and optimum steering in hydro-economical system are described. Water resources usable taking into account the principle of full integrity of surface and underground water circulation are determined and defined.
The budget of water resources in Poland is analysed in order to illustrate relations between the above mentioned resources. The analysis, carried out taking into account the principle of unity of water resources in natural circulation system in a consistent way, has shown that disposable resources of surface and underground waters are at present almost equal in Poland and that their ratio does not have to be changed in any essential way by retention of disposable reserves, i.e. of idle outflow. This should be the case when the solution of so-called small and medium retention, accompanied by enrichment of groundwaters, is chosen. The acceptance of that solution should greatly facilitate realization of the basic task of the "Wisła Programme", i.e. the increase of possibilities of taking unpolluted water in the whole drainage basin.
The acceptance of the solution of large retention located in upper sections of major rivers, practically precludes any significant increase in disposable groundwater resources and there may arise serious problems in water supply in areas distant from rivers, especially for the needs of agriculture and towns. The solution involving small and medium retention makes also possible some extension of the giant programme of qualifying waste water in time whereas the alternative solution of large retention requires its rapid completion. In order to complete the former solution, it appears necessary to increase markedly the range of hydrogeological surveys in the whole drainage basin of the Vistula River.
The final part of the paper deals with achievements and further aims of the Geological Survey in making available groundwater resources, especially those of the Vistula River drainage basin, for use in hydroeconomic systems.

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