Antropogeniczne zanieczyszczenia azbestem środowiska na Dolnym Śląsku

Michał Sachanbiński, Tomasz Kuder



Asbestos minerals are commonly found in the Lower Silesia. An overview of silesian asbestos occurrences is given. The greatest amounts of these minerals are found in serpentinitic massifs situated along the eastern margin of the Sowie Góry Block (i. e. Gogołów-Jordanów, Szklary and Braszowice-Grochowa massifs). At least three varieties of asbestos have been identified by previous workers: chrysotile, tremolite and antophyllite; their mineralogical and geochemical characteristics are summarised. Trace metal composition of chrysotile is characterised by high content of iron, nickel and zinc. Tremolite contains enhanced amounts of nickel, chromium, manganese, while antophyllite contains Mn, Ni, Zn, Ti, Cr, Cu, As and Ag. Due to erosion and human activities significant amounts of asbestos fibres are released to atmosphere and hydrosphere, causing a potential hazard to local population. Measurements of air and water borne asbestos content in the area of serpentinite massifs Gogołów-Jordanów, Szklary and also in the city of Wrocław allowed to detect remarkably high concentrations of fibres. Airborne pollution was primarily associated with serpentinite quarrying and processing. Contents of airborne asbestos in the vicinity of processing plant varied from 1170 to 13413 fibres/m3. Utilisation of asbestos-bearing serpentinitic grits for road construction was also identified as a source of pollution. Significant levels of asbestos fibres content in ground water and open stream water were connected with serpentinite outcrops (from 1 to 1.5x106 fibres/litre). The highest concentration was identified in a magnesite mine waste water (1.3x109 fibres/litre). Aspects of epidemiology of asbestos related diseases, analytical methods and examples of similar surveys from other countries are briefly summarised.