Wpływ pierwiastków śladowych i izotopów siarki na środowisko naturalne Gór Świętokrzyskich

Zdzisław M. Migaszewski, Piotr Pasławski, Stanisław Hałas, Tomasz Durakiewicz



The overall objective of this report was to assess the impact of atmospheric emissions from industrial activity on the biogeochemistry of soils, lichens (Hypogymnia physodes), ground mosses (Entodon Schreberi, Hylocomium solendens and Hypnum cupressiforme), pine needles (Pinus sylvestris) and spring waters in the Holy Cross Mts National Park versus the whole Holy Cross Mts area. This investigation is the preliminary phase of a subsequent two-year monitoring. Its specific aims are: I) estimate baseline element concentration ranges and stable sulfur isotope ratios in soils, selected plant species and spring waters, (II) establish biomonitoring plots and examine the seasonal aspects of elements in these media that may be impacted by sulfur and other emissions, as well as acid rain, (III) determine elemental and sulfur isotope signatures of selected pollution emitters in the Holy Cross Mts through the analysis of stack ashes, feedstocks, and partly raw material, (IV) if possible use baseline and seasonal information to examine pollution source apportionment to assist in reducing overall air pollution. Baseline element concentration ranges and the scale of spatial variance in soil (one to several horizons), plant and spring water chemistry was determined by sampling throughout the Holy Cross Mts area including National Park (a total of 14 locations) according to a hierarchical analysis of variance design. The results of preliminary investigations have been presented in tables 1 through 6 (tables 2-6 and 7 are available on request from the Central Geological Depository in Warsaw). Compared to other national parks (table 7), the uppermost soil horizons of the Holy Cross Mts (especially those in their highest parts which make up National Park) are strongly enriched in arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, mercury, zinc, but most of all in lead and sulfur. Similarly, lichens are abundant in cadmium, lanthanum, lithium, lead, mercury, sulfur and titanium, ground mosses in barium, cadmium, phosphorus, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc, whereas pine need dies in cadmium, lead, manganese, nickel and phosphorus. Relatively high content of uranium in soils is a concern. The Ostrowiec steelworks, heat generating plants and a couple of cement and lime plants were selected for further investigations as potential sources of air pollution.