Rola porostów w badaniach skażeń atmosferycznych

Zdzisław M. Migaszewski

Abstrakt


THE ROLE OF LICHENS IN INVESTIGATION OF AIR POLLUTION

Summary
The overall objective of this report is to present an outline of lichen natural history and to assess the impact of different pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and ammonia, fluorides, volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, metals, and radioactive elements) on the physiology of lichen flora. Many examples of biogeochemical investigations from Western and Central Europe, and North America were given. Lichens are used as bioindicators to monitor air and water pollution. Chemical and isotopic analyses enable estimation of baseline element concentration ranges and stable sulfur isotope ratios in lichen flora. Under some conditions, they can even indicate individual potential pollution sources. Lichens are used in
geobotanical prospecting and to monitor contamination by radioactive elements derived from atmospheric nuclear bomb testing, the crashing of nuclear-powered satellites and the disasters of nuclear powered electricity generating stations. This report also includes the results of preliminary study performed on Hypogymnia physodes, and locally (one site) on Xanthoria parietina, from the Holy Cross Mts (Tables 2-4, Fig. 1). The former growing on deciduous trees (beech, oak and rowan) contained more Ba, Ca, Mn, Sr, Y, Yb and light sulfur isotope (less positive δ34S), and locally K and Pb (and less S, Hg and
Fe) compared to that from coniferous trees (pine and spruce) (Table 2). In addition, the examined lichen took up more Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Na, P, .S, Ti, V, Zn and heavy sulfur isotope (more positive δ34S) than Its bark. In turn, the latter contamed more Ba and Sr (Table 3).

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