Kartograficzno-geologiczne opracowania Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego (rys historyczny, stan aktualny, potrzeby)

Dominik Jura, Józef Lewandowski




Large-scale (1 : 50 000) geological map (geognostic) of the Upper Silesian region (Carnall, 1844) had been published. Since that time about 30 different geological maps of this region has been published in scales from 1 : 300000 to 1 : 25000 (Czarnocki, 1935). The large scale maps (1 : 50 000 and 1 : 25 000) and geological atlases (1 : 100000) contained from a few to tens of series sheets (vide Figs 1, 2). Most of those maps were treated as secret or confidential documents thus they were unknown for foreign geologists. Cartographic-geological works carried out on the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) can be divided into three main periods (Lewandowski et aI., 1995). The first period - the pioneer one includes the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century (to 1913). The Geognostische Karte von Ober-Schlesien in scale 1 : 100000 (Roemer, 1870) and Geological Atlas of Galicia, of which three sheets: Oświęcim, Chrzanów and Cracow were worked out by Zaręczny (1894), made the most remarkable achievement in geological cartography of that period. The Upper Silesian sheets of Geologische Karte von Preussen, published in scale 1 : 25 000 (Fig. 2) by Assmann, Cromer, Michael, Tornau, Quitzow, Range (1913) deserve special distinction. Geologische bersichts Karte des Oberschlesischen Stelnkohlenrevzers… supplemented with synthetic work Die Geologie des Oberschlesischen Steinkohumbezirkes (1913) was the regional recapitulation of the USCB geological mapping of the first period.
The second period (1935-1972) was a continuation of detailed and synthetic regional works. Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki was the main cartograph of that period, together with a team of geologists mapping the eastern part of the US CB. Unfortunately, most of the large scale geological-cartographic elaborations of that time was not published, because of the secrecy of geological data. These were mainly structural maps of coal-bearing Carboniferous and others different types of documentation maps of mines. In the post-war period (1955-1995) most of geological-cartographic elaborations were limited only to the modification of already existing, large scale maps, and in case of need to regional synthesis construction, on maps in scales 1 : 100000 and 1 : 200000; apart from Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki cartographic work being the only exception from the rule. Sketch Geological Map of Poland, sheet Cracow in scale 1 : 300 000 by Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki and Różycki (edition A -1948 and B -1955) was the recapitulation of cartographic elaborations as a regional synthesis. This map made the grounds for further editions: Sketch Geological-Engineering Map (1955), Sketch
Hydrogeological Map - A (1963) and B (1969), and Sketch Map of Rock Resources (1964). The Hydrological Map of the USCB, in scale 1 : 100000 (1963) was also elaborated on the base of geological maps of Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki. In 1955-1960 almost the whole area ofthe USCB was covered by several sheets of Detail Geological Map of Poland in scale 1 : 50 000. These maps were elaborated availing the possibility of modification of the existing, geological maps. Unluckily they kept a part of geological data in secrecy in relation to originals, and were considerably simplified as well. Next years fructified with the elaboration of lacking sheets, and nowadays only the southern part of the USCB is devoid of the detailed geological mapping (Fig. 2). Within Geological Map of Poland in scale 1 : 200 000, two sheets of the USCB appeared: Gliwice (1979) and Cracow (1980), which gave the opportunity to the next regional synthesis. The map just mentioned contains two editions A - a surface map and B - a map without Quaternary deposits, both with an explanatory text and general data (colourless sheet maps in scale 1 : 50 000). As a result of Geological Atlas of the USCB in scale 1: 100000, elaborated by Polish Geological Institute, a few maps of great worth were printed. In the early 80s two maps were printed: Geothermal Map and Map of Coal Quality, in 1980 and in 1983 respectively. In 1994 the Structural Map of Carboniferous was printed and in 1995 Geochemical Atlas of the USCB in scale 1 : 200 000. All of them are sketch maps and of regional synthesis type. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin acquires over 200 geological documentations of different type. The mining areas posses hand-written maps (in scale 1 : 25000 and 1 : 5 000) of the whole USCB. Apart from a large number of maps and elaborations, the region is still lacking in a complex detailed geological map in scale 1 : 25 000. Such map would enable full utilisation of the existing documentation and comprehensive presentation of complex geological ore deposits and geognostical problems of the USCB.

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