Lessy i osady pokrewne Lubelszczyzny jako surowce ceramiczne

Ryszard Wyrwicki

Abstrakt


LOESSES AND LOESS-LIKE LOAMS AS CERAMIC RAW MATERIAL

Summary
In the Lublin region, loess sediments form a cover up to 20 m in thickness. On the basis of results of mineralogical and ceramic studies, three lithological-raw material varieties of these sediments are differentiated: loesses, loess loams and loess silts. All the varieties display predominance of grains of the 10-60 μm fraction in grain-size distribution and content of feldspars varying from 10 to 20%. Loesses are characterized by calcite content over 5% and the lowermost content of clay minerals (Table I). Loess loams and silts are uncalcareous and richer in clay minerals (Table I). Loesses display the lowest plasticity so ceramic material obtained from them is characterized by very low strength to compression (Fig. 1). Temperature interval of clinkerization is also very small (Table II) so they cannot be treated as independent raw material. Loess loams are weakly plastic so the material fired of them (Fig. 2) display properties more advantagous than the above (Table III). Loess silts are plastic and the material obtained (Fig. 3) displays most advantagous properties (Table III). They may be used for production of various building ceramics products, both those with porous body and the clinkered, depending on temperature of firing.

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