Badania wód geotermalnych w Polsce ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem Podhala

Julian Sokołowski



Characteristic features of the Polish energy industry include high level of consumption of solid fuels (over 79%), low efficiency of energy transformation equipment, the lowest in Europe level of oil products consumption and very low share of renewable energy. As a result of this, large quantities of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide are emitted into the atmosphere and large amounts of ash and salty mining waters are released into rivers. Possibilities to save the natural environment and to protect man's existence are seen through concentration of efforts to restore the original cleanness of rivers and streams ( especially in their upper course) by: limiting the scale of combustion of coals, utilizing purified waters for economic purposes and more rational use of drinking water resources, proper insulation of buildings, restructuring o[ industry to limit energy consuming heavy industry, and intensifying geological-prospecting works aimed at proving new liquid fuels resources and development of new technology enabling wide-spread use of renewable energy resources such as geothermal waters, surface streams, solar and wind energy and biogases.
In the author's opinion, geothermal waters seem to be the most sure and suitable of the above listed types of renewable energy sources for relatively quick utilization. The use of this type of energy may cover around l O per cent of energy demand of the country, mainly in the area of house heating and farm use. According to the present-day state of knowledge, the main resources of geothermal waters and the re1ated energy are connected with Mesozoic (especially Liassic) rocks of the Szczecin-Łódź and Grudziądz-Warsaw subbasins and Tertiary and Mesozoic rocks of the Podhale subbasin. Geothermal waters of the latter subbasin are weakly mineralized and characterized by artesian pressures. For these reasons and because of the unique - from the point of view of its natural beauty and recreation and cultural significance - the first in Poland geothermal power plant is planned to be constructed in the Podhale region. Preliminary results of drillings made in this region indicate that it is characterized by occurrence of not only geothermal waters but also gas potential. The occurrence of geothermal waters and gas deposits, when confirmed, may contribute to gradual replacement of energy from coal combustion by that of gas and geothermal waters.
In the Polish Lowlands the first geothermal plants are planned to be constructed in the Uniejów-Łódź and Skierniewice-Żyrardów areas.

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