Problemy surowcowe i sozologiczne regionu Krakowa

Olga Rapacz Król, Jacek Rutkowski

Abstrakt


PROBLEMS OF RAW MATERIALS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE CRACOW REGION, SOUTH POLAND

Summary
The Cracow region is rich in various mineral resources (Fig. 1). Among igneous rocks, porphyries of the Zalas area are most important, being used for break-stone production. Diabases are being used for that purpose to a lesser extent. As far as carbonates are concerned, Jurassic limestones are most widespread, their use being, however, relatively small. More widely exploited are Lower Carboniferous limestones (2.6 millions of tons), used as a flux in. metallurgy; as well as Devonian limestones known as "the black marbles from Dębnik", and used for decorative purposes since the 17th century. One should also mention those Devonian limestones which are used as crushed rocks for road construction.
These deposits occur in areas showing great landscape values which are either legally protected or require protection. Exploitation of mineral deposits is highly concentrated. Within the compass of 6 km around Krzeszowice (Fig. 1), there occur 6 from 8 large excavation sites of solid rocks, their total annual exploitation attaining 4.8 millions of tons.
Hence, the principal problem consists in taking a middle course between environmental protection and the needs of keeping up and proper protection of mineral deposits. Another question concerns reasonable utilisation of old excavation sites which, at least partly, should be protected for didactical and scientific purposes and, in some cases, represent peculiar landscape forms. Coarse-clastic natural balast stones occur in large quantities in the Vistula river valley, whereform they are being exploited. These areas should also be protected due to occurrence of high-quality soils. Exploitation processes may be facilitated by a possibility of using of exploitation-related ponds as reservoirs suitable for recreation.

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