Wykorzystanie sosny do badań bioindykacyjnych

Zdzisław M. Migaszewski, Agnieszka Gałuszka



This report presents an outline of the extent and ecology of Scots pine (Pinussylvestris), and its use as a bioindicator in biogeochemical investigation. This report also summarizes the results of investigation performed on one-year (1995),two-year (1994) and three-year (1993) P. sylvestris pine needles from the Holy Cross Mts (south-central Poland). Both the individual tree branches and the geometric mean values showed an increase of Cu, Mg, Ni, P, and somewhat K, as well as a decrease of Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Hg, Mn, Na,Sr, Ti, and somewhat Pb and Zn going from 1993 through 1995 pine needles. Chemical and sulfur isotope determinations of pine needles relative to pine bark from the same trees indicated that the Cormercontained more B, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, S and Zn. The high content (over ten times) of K, Mg and Mn should be stressed here. In turn, the bark showed more Ba, Cr, Fe, Hg, Pb and Ti, as well as in major samples Al. Of the aforementioned elements, Pb revealed the highest concentration ratio (close to 10). The chemical analyses of soils indicated the raised content of many elements, especially Cd, Hg, Mn, Pb and S, in uppermost horizon (Al). OC these elements, mercuryreaching0.704 ppm, lead 466 pm, and sulfur 0.231 % are a concern. The most contaminated site isŁysica, the tallest mountain of the region. The geometric mean values of a large number of elements, especially Hg and S, were higher in the Holy Cross Mts than those in Poland, and even the highly industrialized Upper Silesian region. Sulfur as well as major and trace elements are derived primarily from atmospheric emissions, which is evidenced by a relatively similar distribution pattern of the δ34S in pine needles, topsoil (horizon Al) and local industrial material, i.e., stack dust, coal and coke. The investigation is ongoing and includes, aside from pine needles, such media as topsoil, lower soil, bedrock, lichens, spring waters, stack dust, feedstock and fuel.

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