Toksykologia litosfery-nowa dziedzina nauk o Ziemi

Zdzisław M. Migaszewski, Agnieszka Gałuszka

Abstrakt


Toksykologia litosfery jest terminem zaproponowanym przez autorów niniejszego artykułu. Wymieniona dziedzina nauk o Ziemi bada geotoksyny, czyli naturalne substancje toksyczne, uwalniane do środowiska przyrodniczego w następstwie procesów geologicznych i działalności antropogenicznej, związanej głównie z eksploatacją, przeróbką i wykorzystaniem kopalin, jak również z budownictwem wodnym, melioracją, nawożeniem pól itp. Działalność człowieka prowadzi do zintensyfikowania procesów geologicznych (wietrzenia, erozji, wahań zwierciadła wód podziemnych, itp) oraz remobilizacji geotoksyn. W artykule omówiono źródła i rodzaje pospolitych geotoksyn oraz czynniki ich obiegu geochemicznego. Przedstawiono także zakresy badań w ramach toksykologii litosfery, jakie należy wprowadzić dla programów ochrony środowiska przyrodniczego.
LITHOSPHERIC TOXICOLOGY - A NEW FIELD OF GEOSCIENCES

Summary
The term lithospheric toxicology, proposed by the present authors, is a new field of geosciences that deals with toxicants (geotoxicants) released to the environment as a result of geologic processes: the natural and those triggered by man's activity. The latter also influences abiotic and biotic systems. The natural sources include ore, coal, crude oil and natural gas deposits, mineralized rock formations, and in some parts ofthe world also toxic products ofvolcanic eruptions and hydrothermal activity. One of the most important problems connected with mineral deposit mining is acid mine drainage that triggers the migration of many trace metals. Old mines, mine waste piles, tailings, mineral processing wastes, mine and process wastewater ponds and lagoons have a detrimental impact on streams, groundwaters, soils, vegetation, animals and man. Another problem linked to coal mining is pushing methane and carbon dioxide out of abandoned workings as a result of the upward shift of water table. In addition, emissions of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in areas of sulfur extraction by a borehole method are a serious concern in some parts of southeastem Poland. Technological processes of many mineral raw materials including coals and ores are also hazardous to the environment. To solve these and other problems in Poland, lithospheric toxicology studies should be incorporated into the national strategy of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry. They would encompass detailed locations of potentially toxic areas through geologic, geochemical and biogeochemical mapping, and geophysical surveys, as well as biological reclamation of mine waste piles, biological remediation of contaminated areas, adjustment of land-use management plans to the environment, etc. These practical ventures should be backed up by the basic studies ofnatural toxicant behavior in the rock-soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, including water-soil and water-plantinteractions, within similar rock and soil profiles in differently polluted areas. These studies would be coupled with the assessment of geotoxicant concentrations in the media mentioned above, and their impact on animal and man health.

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