Mining activity as an important factor of human impact in the Polish Carpathian landscape

Barbara Radwanek-Bąk


Polish part of the Carpathians occupies about 6% of the territory of Poland. Some of specific features of this region are: diversified morphology with predominating mountain landscape, its geology and numerous areas of high value landscape which are under various forms of protection. This caused, that all forms of anthropopression develop here more intensive as in the other parts of the country. Main negative changes resulting from the mining activity are connected with its impact on superficial, phreatic and underground waters and on a landscape. Some of this changes are briefly described in the presented paper. Reduction of negative effects of the landscape transformation by open-pit mining in the scale of individual deposit might be temporarily achieved by: - adequate formation of suitable scarps, - reclaiming of the post-exploitation terrains, - secure of the mined areas for transformation in the uncontrolled refuse heaps. A method to reduction negative effects of mining activity in terms of sustainable landscape planning is working out by the complex strategy of ultimate management of mined terrains. Such strategy should be elaborated for the entire regions of the deposits and then for the individual deposits, best before its mining. The strategy should be a compromise between the extent and manner of the planned exploitation and the state of environment wich will be left after finish of the mining acticity.

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