The Anisian carbonate ramp system of Central Europe (Peri-Tethys Basin): sequences and reservoir characteristics

Anette E. Götz, Nils Lenhardt

Abstract


During Middle Triassic times, the Peri-Tethys Basin bordered the north-western Tethys shelf and was connected to the open Tethys Ocean via three seaways. Today, lower Muschelkalk carbonates of this epeiric sea cover large parts of Central Europe, documenting the evolution of a low-relief, homoclinal, mud-dominated ramp system during the Anisian. In view of their geotectonic/climatic setting, depositional processes, facies architecture, and distribution, the rocks are considered as an outcrop analogue for layer-cake reservoirs of world-wide importance, e.g. the Permo-Triassic Khuff or Jurassic Arab carbonates in the Middle East.

In general, two different reservoir types and their interplay might be considered: The proximal stacks of muddy dolostones (NW part of the basin) and the more distally developed grainy limestones (central and sE part of the basin). The rather uncommon depositional setting with minor relief and minimal accommodation contributed to both, the stratal and lateral facies development, and to unusual and possibly even “inverted” facies patterns with thick, grainy facies found in the more distal environments.

Based on litho- and microfacies analyses, six main facies types are distinguished, building characteristic cyclic facies successions of different hierarchies. The stratal architecture of small-scale depositional sequ ences systematically changes in relation to their relative proximal-distal position on the Muschelkalk ramp system. here, we present porosity and permeability data of the different facies types and within the basin-wide sequence stratigraphic framework. dolo-wacke-/packstones and peloid grainstones attain the highest porosities of up to 24%, whereas bioclastic grainstones show porosities of up to 8%. The platy and nodular mud-/wackestone and most of the bioclastic wacke-/packstones typically show porosities below 2%. Even in the most porous strata, permeabilities do not exceed 10 mD, and only a few carbonates show higher permeabilities up to 90 mD. Within large-scale, third-order depositional sequences late highstand deposits represent the most permeable sediments.


Keywords


depositional sequences; reservoir characteristics; Carbonate ramp deposits; Middle Triassic, Anisian; Central Europe

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