High (ultrahigh) pressure metamorphic terrane rocks as the source of the detrital garnets from the Middle Jurassic sands and sandstones of the Cracow Region (Cracow- Wieluń Upland, Poland)

Štefan Meres, Roman Aubrecht, Michał Gradziński, Milan Sykora


The Middle Jurassic (Upper Bathonian/Lower Callovian) sands and sandstones of the Cracow–Wieluń Upland contain detrital garnets with high contents of the pyrope molecule (30–73 mol %). The predominance of detrital pyrope garnets, and inclusions represented mainly by omphacite and kyanite, show that the garnets were derived from high (ultrahigh) pressure (H/UHP) metamorphic terrane rocks (garnet peridotites, eclogites and granulites). Their source is unknown. The Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif is closely comparable. However, the terranes between this zone and the Cracow–Wieluń Upland are dominated by almandine garnets. The relatively low proportion of almandine garnets in the examined samples indicates that transport of the detrital material could not have been from a far distant source as the garnet assemblage would otherwise be strongly dominated by almandine. A less distant possible source could have been the Góry Sowie Mts., which incorporate UHP/HP metamorphic rocks, but the exposed areal extent of these rocks is too small. It is possible that larger portions of these metamorphic rocks are buried beneath the Cenozoic cover and might have earlier represented a larger source area. Reworking of the entire heavy mineral spectra from older clastics is improbable because of the low maturity of the heavy mineral assemblages (higher proportion of less stable minerals). The source area therefore remains unknown. Most probably it was formed by primary crystalline complexes of lower crust to mantle origin, outcrops of which were not far distant from the area of deposition. Similar detrital garnet compositions were also recorded in the Outer Western Carpathians (Flysch Zone, Pieniny Klippen Belt), i.e. the crustal segments which formed the Silesian and Magura cordilleras; the Czorsztyn Swell was also formed by similar rocks.


Detrital garnets; Provenance analysis; Jurassic; Polish platform

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