Stratigraphy and extents of Pleistocene continental glaciations in Europe

Leszek Lindner


Evidence is presented for subdivision of the Quaternary in Central Europe into 8 continental glaciations (Narew = Menap; Nida = Glacial A; San 1 = Glacial B = Elster 1; San 2 = Elster 2; Liwiec = Fuhne; Odra = Drenthe = Saale 1 + 2; Warta = Warthe = Saale 3; Wisła = Weichsel = Vistulian) separated by 7 interglacials (Podlasian = Cromerian I; Malopolanian = Cromarian II; Ferdynandów = Cromerian III + IV = Voigtstedt; Mazovian = Holstein s.s.; Zbójno = DØmnitz; Lubawa = Rògen; Eemian). All glaciations were expressed by advances of Scandinavian icesheets onto the territory of Poland. There is still no evidence of the presence of one (? or two) earliest glaciations and also of the Liwiec Glaciation in the West European Lowland. During the Liwiec Glaciation the Scandinavian icesheet has not advanced the East European Lowland, similarly as it did not occupy the East Russian Plain during the Nida Glaciation. In the British Isles the first three glaciations were expressed by a development of local ice caps. During the successive glaciations (San 2 = Anglian; Odra = Wolstonian; Wisła = Devensian) these caps expanded so much that they contacted with the Scandinavian icesheet.

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