A tyrannosaurid pedal ungual from the Williams Fork Formation (Campanian) of Colorado and its implications for the biogeography of Laramidian dinosaurs

Chan-Gyu Yun


A right theropod pedal ungual phalanx II-3 from the Campanian Williams Fork Formation of northwestern Colorado is described, and a combination of features, including the large size, tapering distal tip, robust and stout overall form, triangular cross-section, and a relatively flat ventral surface allows a confident referral to Tyrannosauridae Osborn, 1906. Although this specimen was found in a relatively southern state, the proximal articular surface of this ungual is similar to that of Gorgosaurus libratus Lambe, 1914, a taxon found in the northern state, Alberta. Although based on limited evidence, this may suggest that the range of tyrannosaurids considered endemic to the north of Laramidia extended farther south than previously thought.


Dinosauria; Theropoda; Tyrannosauridae; Fossil record; Pedal ungual anatomy; Dinosaur biogeography

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