Unusual echinoid resting trace records change in the position of the redox boundary (Palaeogene of the Lesser Caucasus in Georgia)

Alfred Uchman, Zurab Lebanidze, Nino Kobakhidze, Tamar Beridze, Davit Makadze, Koba Lobzhanidze, Sophio Kutsishvili, Rusudan Chagelishvili, Kakha Koiava, Nino Khundadze


The first recognition of a tracemaker responding to a temporary shift in the redox boundary is recognized. This is recorded by a new trace fossil, Sursumichnus orbicularis igen. et isp. nov., which is established for mound-like structures on the upper surfaces of sandstone beds from the Borjomi Flysch (upper Paleocene–lower Eocene) in the Lesser Caucasus (Georgia). It is connected with the spatangoid echinoid burrow Scolicia de Quatrefages, 1849 and interpreted as a resting trace of the same tracemaker produced after moving up from a deeper position within the sediment. The resting is caused by an episode of unfavourable conditions related to shallowing of the redox boundary. The trace fossil is a component of the Nereites ichnofacies.


Ichnotaxonomy; New ichnotaxa; Irregular echinoids; Deep sea; Flysch; Redox boundary; Oxygenation

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